Coin Glossary |

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Light friction rubbing or scuffing which is unlike from hairlines and bag marks. sometimes referred to as “ cabinet friction ” because many times it is caused by a sliding carry through in a coin cabinet.

Quantities of coins, tokens and other numismatic corporeal which has not been sorted, classified, attributed nor organized in any meaningful way, unlike a true mint collection.

adjustment marks
Marks or grooves caused by filing a planchet prior to striking in order to reduce it to a standard weight. This was a reasonably common practice on many early U.S. coins, in particular burst dollars.

A holder with slots for storing and displaying coins in a book type manner. Common brand names include Whitman, Dansco and Harco.

A combination of two or more metals, such as electrum or cupro-nickel.

Illegal commit of tampering with the date, batch mark, or other feature of a coin in an undertake to be deceptive. For example, adding an “ S ” mintmark to a 1909-VDB Lincoln Cent struck at the Philadelphia Mint.

A coin produced prior to the generally accept go steady of 500 A.D.

artificial toning
Adding color ( s ) to a coin by respective treatments with chemicals, heat and early methods in an try to increase its value. While a coin with natural tone may at times provide exceptional eye-appeal and command higher prices than an untoned specimen, a mint known to have been artificially toned ( a deceptive practice ) will bring a lot lower than usual prices.

noun : A specific characteristic of a mint.
verb : Identifying a mint via the origin, denomination, type, date, mintmark, assortment, etc.

Determination by a numismatic adept as to the status of a mint being original and genuine – not counterfeit.

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bag marks
Nicks and scratches resulting from contact with early coins in the lapp batch bag. specially common on large, heavy coins such as Morgan Dollars.

bank note
Paper money issued by a bank and account payable to bearer.

bas relief
A style in which the design elements are raised within depressions in the field, so that no part of the design is undercut.

A low-grade alloy of silver medal and other metals, normally copper, which is used in minor neologism.

A coin with the center and outer ring ( s ) having different metal alloys.

Spanish pieces of eight were physically cut into eight pieces with each slice as one bit. The quarter dollar is sometimes referred to as two bits, so that an eighth of a dollar would be one bit or 12 and one-half cents.

A piece of metal ( normally round ) being prepared for coinage before the rims have been raised via the swage mill.

Minor nicks, marks, flaws or spots of stain that mar the surface of a coin.

A station where dealers, collectors and the general public get together to buy, sell and trade coins with each other. normally the most active section of a mint show.

A yellow debase consisting chiefly of copper and zinc.

A coin hit without a securely seated apprehension which results in an outwards “ spread ”, but silent includes all design details.

A mirror image of a design from one side of a mint impressed on the opposite slope, e.g. a newly struck mint may adhere to the die, causing the next coin struck to have a beginning strike Mirror Brockage of the coin stuck to the die ; by the irregular affect the mirror is distorted, and later strikes are termed Struck Through A Capped Die.

A reddish/brown debase consisting chiefly of copper and tin, with a small sum of zinc.

A coin or other aim composed chiefly of a precious metallic element ( such as gold, silver or platinum ) with fiddling to no numismatic measure over and beyond that of the metallic element itself.

bureau of Engraving and Printing
An agency of the U.S. Treasury Department responsible for the production of currency.

business strike
A coin come to with the purpose of serving in the channels of commerce, i.e. to be circulated.

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cabinet friction
See abrasions.

Post confederation Canadian numismatics.

A coin, normally a Proof strike, with a frosted or satiny central device surrounded by a mirrorlike field.

The model of light reflected by flow lines of mint submit coins, resembling spokes of a bicycle ;
Name given to the british pennies and twopences of 1797 due to their unusually broad rims.

certified coin
A coin authenticated and graded by an unbiased, 3rd-party professional service.

To secure the purchase a rare diverseness of a coin worth a premium over the seller ‘s ask price for a common assortment.

chop mark
A symbol added to money by person other than the government which issued it to indicate authenticity. normally found on U.S. Trade Dollars which circulated in the Orient.

Denotes money that has served a purpose in the channels of department of commerce, i.e. it is no longer mint state ( uncirculated ).

composed of more than one metallic layer, e.g. dimes, quarters, and halves presently minted by the U.S.

clash mark(s)
Elements of designs from the opposite side of a coin which is the result of coin dies clashing into one another when no planchet is portray during the strickle procedure.

Any operation that removes corrosion, unattractive tone, etc. such as dipping or rubbing with harsh materials.

cleaned coin
A coin which has been dipped, polished, whizzed, wiped, etc. broadly speaking, a certain sum of very lighter cleaning ( such as dipping ) done by a master may be acceptable.

A coin, planchet or blank missing a share of metallic element from its periphery, caused by an erroneousness during production of the blank, normally at the end of a strip.

Deliberate shearing or shaving from the edge of gold and silver coins. Was quite common from the Byzantine to the Colonial era, so much so that many authorities employed edge devices in order to discourage this rehearse.

A piece of metallic element ( normally round ) with a classifiable postage and of a specify value and weight issued by an authority and intended to be used as a medium of change.

coin show
An event where numismatic items are bought, sold, traded and much exhibited.

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A device in a mint press used to restrict the outbound flow of metallic element during striking. Allows the attack of coins to be much more precise. besides, can be used to put an border design on the coin.

An organize unit of versatile numismatic holdings.

A coin issued by a colony, such as those produced in the eastern american colonies in the 17th and 18th centuries.

A coin with a design honoring a person, place or event in history.

condition census
The finest acknowledge specimens of a particular coin type or kind.

contact marks
Small come on scratches or nicks which is caused by liaison of coins in the lapp bag.

A fudge mint deceptively made with the purpose of passing it off as if it were the genuine article.

A raised lump of alloy on a coin caused by a nibble of the die breaking off.

A coin that is worn to the point of being scantily identifiable, and/or damaged.

cupro-nickel (or copper-nickel)
composed of an admixture of copper and nickel, such as the U.S. Flying Eagle cents struck from 1856 thru 1858.

See newspaper money.

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A problem such as scratches, nicks, holes, harsh clean, pitting, etc. which lowers the measure of a numismatic item.

The class ( s ) stamped on a coin, congressman of the class it was minted.

An individual or organization that regularly buys, sells and trades coins.

deep mirror prooflike
An property given to coins with highly reflective mirrorlike fields, giving it a like look to that of a proof mint.

Metal missing ( or closely so ) from the surface due to incomplete bond in the planchet.

An ancient Roman silver coin weighing about 3 grams, approximately the same size as a U.S. dime but much thick.

The face rate of a coin.

denticles (dentils)
Tooth-like raised features near the rim of a coin.

The arrangement of devices, lettering, etc. on a coin.

The artist ( s ) responsible for a coin ‘s design.

A major design element, e.g. the female chest of a person or a ship on the high seas.

A piece of sword ( normally cylindrical ) bear at one end the blueprint of one side of a coin.

die chip
A small shard broken off from a die alike to a chew, but much less dramatic.

die clash
Upper and lower dies coming together in a coin weight-lift without a planchet between them.

die crack
A constrict fissure in the surface of a die which produces a resurrect line on the coins it strikes.

die erosion
Normal wear on a die from its use in the mint summons.

die state
The discipline of a die at a particular time in its life.

die polish
Small raised lines in the field of a coin resulting from polishing of a die to remove chips, clang marks, etc.

A form of clean by submersion in a fluid which is capable of causing molecular changes in the surface ( with the purpose of providing a more invoke front ).

A frequently-used spell of “ dime bag ” in the seventeenth hundred.

double denomination
An erroneousness in which a coin is restruck by the die pair of another denomination.

double die
A term sometimes intended to mean a double die coin and sometimes indicating a machine doubled mint ( bill that there are huge differences in the values ).

doubled die
A die with duplicate device details, letters and/or numerals resulting from an error in manufacture. besides, a coin mint from such a die.

double eagle
A U.S. $ 20 amber mint, minted from 1849 through 1933.

An ancient greek argent mint weighing about 3 grams. The predecessor to the Roman denarius.

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A U.S. $ 10 gold coin minted from 1795 through 1933. besides, the stream U.S. bullion program pieces.

The perimeter of coin, sometimes referred to as the “ 3rd ” side.

A naturally occurring alloy of silver and gold. The earliest coins of ancient Asia Minor and many Byzantine issues were struck in this metallic.

e Pluribus Unum
The Latin motto found on many U.S. coins – translates to “ Out of many, one ”.

Any error in the mint march which results in a different appearance than intended on the resulting coin ( mho ).

The lower part of a mint or decoration, normally divided from the field by a line and much containing the date, mintmark or engraver ‘s initial ( mho ).

Tokens, medals and other non-monetary coin-like objects.

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face value
The ordinary monetary deserving of a mint or note at the time of issue.

The background on a mint, not used for a plan or inscription.

fillet head
The headway of Liberty on U.S. coins with her hair tied with a band, generally on the brow.

The purity of a cherished alloy coin, normally expressed as a percentage one thousand parts.

A 3 cent silver U.S. mint sometimes referred to as a trime. besides, a 5 cent silver canadian while.

Another term for a planchet.

A fictile mint holder, normally with 2 sections – one for the coin – one for a small tease containing information about the coin.

flow lines
Microscopic lines in the surface of a mint resulting from the outward run of alloy during the strike procedure.

fiat money
Money not backed by coinage and is legal tender by virtue of decree.

Minute oxidation spots on a coin, much caused by humble droplets of saliva from talking over the coin.

fugio cent
The first mint issued by agency of the United States in 1787. Fugio is Latin for “ I fly ”, in this case, referring to time.

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An epoxy coated plaster easing mannequin of a mint created in order to produce maestro hub, which in bend produce mint dies.

Condition assigned to a coin chiefly in an effort to determine its relative respect. See “ NGC ” and “ PCGS ”

The dub given to the Coin Dealer Newsletter, a price template for U.S. coins intended primarily for dealer-to-dealer transactions for uncertified coins.

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Light scratches in the come on of a mint, normally caused by light polishing.

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half cent
A U.S. copper mint minted from 1793 through 1857 ( 1/200th of a dollar ).

half dime
A U.S. silver mint minted from 1794 through 1873 ( five cents ).

half eagle
A U.S. $ 5 gold coin minted from 1795 through 1929.

high points
The areas of highest stand-in in a mint design. normally the beginning to show evidence of wear or abrasion. May be incomplete due to a “ balmy ” strike.

hobo nickel
A mint ( normally a U.S. Buffalo nickel ) re-engraved to produce a different image.

Having a fix drilled through it, normally for jewelry function.

A device designed for storage and/or display of numismatic items.

A steel bar used to make coin dies.

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impaired proof
A proof coin with wear or damage resulting from circulation or botch.

Design elements are impressed into the surface ( reverse of easing ).

The legend or lettering on a mint.

Net metallic rate sans numismatic/face measure.

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Conjoined busts facing the same direction slenderly offset from each other in such a way as to allow the buttocks break to be partially seen while the peak flop is shown in its entirety.

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key date
The rare ( or one of the most rare ) and consequently most expensive members of a mint series, e.g. the 1909-S VDB Lincoln penny or 1916-D Mercury dime.

KM number
Chet Krause/Clifford Mishler number assigned to a mint in popular reference books.

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A blemish caused by alloy detaching from the pillow of a mint. Somewhat coarse with clad neologism.

large cent
A U.S. copper mint minted from 1793 through 1857, similar in size to a current U.S. quarter ( deserving 1/100th of a dollar ). besides, a similar canadian coin issued between 1858-1920.

The principle inscription on a mint other than the denomination or nation which issued it.

lettered edge
The inscription found on the border of a mint.

Popular name for the canadian addle-head dollar coin beginning issued in 1987.

A type of magnifying glass used by numismatists to more closely examine a coin.

The glossy brilliance of a coin seen from the reflection of light off the hang lines.

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machine doubling
Doubling of details resulting from loose dies during the strike action ( much more park and much less valuable than fail doubling ).

matte proof
A proof mint with a farinaceous surface appearance produced by dies treated to obtain a minutely engrave surface

A coin-like object strike to honor one or more persons or events, but without any denomination ( which may then classify it as a commemorative coin ).

The value of cherished alloy in a coin ( see intrinsic ).

milled edge
A raised rim around the outer surface of a coin.

A fabrication facility for producing coins.

The number of coins produced by a mint for a specific time period.

mint bloom
The original surface of a newly minted coin ( see luster ).

mint mark
A letter or symbol used to denote the mint which produced the coin.

mint set
A specially packaged group of uncirculated coins from one or more mints of the same nation containing at least one coin for most or all of the denominations issued during a particular year.

mint state
A flat of conservation signifying the like basic condition as when originally delivered from the mint ( uncirculated ).

misplaced date
One or more digits of a go steady punched away from the intended location.

A world or phrase found on a coin, e.g “ E Pluribus Unum ”.

A mint strike from two dies not intended to be used together

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Numismatic Guaranty Corporation of America. NGC was founded in 1987, and for mint grade, its opening heralded the introduction of a new standard of integrity. From the begin, NGC focused on only one objective, a standard of reproducible and accurate grade.

natural toning
Coloration resulting from chemical change on the surface during normal environmental exposure over a prolong time period.

A little notice on a coin normally caused by contact with a another mint.

The art and science relate to the study of coins, tokens, medals, paper money and similar objects.

A scholar and/or collector who is knowledgeable in numismatics.

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A little ancient Greek argent coin ( worth 1/6 of a dram ).

The front or “ heads ” side of a coin, normally the side with the date and independent design.

off center
An error caused by falsely centering the planchet during the dramatic process, which results in separate of the design missing from the mint.

Refers to a coin that has not been “ sophisticate ”, i.e. cleaned or tampered with post the original mint work.

A mint strike from a die with one or more digits of the date repunched over a different digit, e.g. the 1942/1 Mercury dime bag.

The practice of assigning a higher grade to a coin than it truly deserves.

over mintmark
A mintmark punched on top of another mintmark, such as a ‘D ‘ over an ‘S ‘.

An mental picture made with unlike dies on a previously struck coin.

The formation of oxides or tarnish on the airfoil of a mint from exposure to humidity, vent pollutants, or other environmental elements.

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Professional Coin Grading Service. PCGS began serving the coin-buying populace on February 3, 1986. The tauten is responsible for dramatic improvements throughout the rare mint industry which have forever changed the way rare coins are bought and sold. In addition to standardized grading, PCGS offered a cash-backed scaling guarantee.

paper money
Paper notes with standardize characteristics issued as money.

Another term for exonumia.

A surface film found on coins ( normally brown or green ) caused by oxidation over a long period of time.

A mint strike as a test or examination firearm for a fresh design – many times without all final legends, dates, blueprint details, etc. – may be struck on different alloys than the final examination consequence.

piece of eight
An early on spanish mint with a face measure of eight reales.

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Having a rough airfoil due to loss of metallic element by corrosion.

A slice of metallic – previously termed a blank – nowadays with raised rims from an overturn machine – but not however struck by the coin dies.

A holed coin that has been filled.

Having a farinaceous airfoil as the leave of oxidation.

prestige set
A set of coins produced by the U.S. Mint containing one or more proof commemorative coins released in the lapp class, vitamin a well as a proof cent, nickel, dime, draw and one-half.

problem coin
Any mint that has been cleaned, damaged or has other undesirable traits.

Coins struck chiefly for collectors as special display pieces using specially polished or otherwise prepared dies.

A commercial enterprise come to mint having mirrorlike fields giving it an appearance alike to that of a proof strike.

proof set
A particularly packaged typeset of proof coins.

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quarter eagle
A U.S. $ 2.50 gold coin minted from 1796 through 1929.

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broadly relates to the rarity or relative inaccessibility of a mint, as a direct serve of authoritative factors such as the original mintage and overall survival rate.

rarity scale
A convention for designating the relative rarity of a coin.

A former basic monetary unit of Spain and spanish colonies.

red Book
The dub for A Guide Book to United States Coins, a retail price lead for U.S. coins published annually since 1947.

reeded edge
The boundary of a coin with furrow lines that run vertically around its perimeter.

The function of a coin blueprint that is raised above its surface ( opposite of incuse ).

repunched date
A date with one or more of the digits punched more than once in different locations and/or orientations.

repunched mintmark
A mintmark punched more than once in different locations and/or orientations. ( RPM )

A coin assume with authentic dies later than the original date of issue.

The back or “ tails ” slope of a mint.

The vein lines on the airfoil of a leaf.

The forbidden boundary of a mint, much raised to avoid premature break.

roman Finish Proof
Term given to designate certain U.S. proof coins made at the Philadelphia batch in 1909-1910.

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A deep line or groove in a coin caused by reach with a sharply or rough aim ( much more dramatic than a hairline ).

One coin of each year issued from each mint of a particular design and denomination, for example, Shield Nickels 1866-1883.

sight seen
Available for examination prior to a final purchase decisiveness.

sight unseen
Unavailable for examination prior to a concluding buy decision.

silver certificate
Paper money that was once cashable for its face measure in silver.

silver clad
A dress coin with one layer containing flatware, e.g. U.S. half dollars 1965-1970.

silver eagle
A coin produced by the U.S. mint beginning in 1986 containing one snow leopard of ash grey and a side measure of one dollar ( not intended for circulation ).

The plastered hard formative holder used by 3rd-party professional grading services to house coins they have determined to be authentic – has a label denoting the specific rate servicing, degree assigned to the coin and early data.

A coin which is equitable this side of uncirculated with only very flimsy traces of break – ( AU58 ).

Precious metallic used to back money, normally gold and silver.

split grade
Assigning individual grades to the obverse and reverse sides of a mint.

A humble area of corrosion or alien meaning. besides, curtly for spot price.

spot price
The market price for immediate delivery of a commodity, such as aureate, ash grey or platinum.

Difference between bribe and sell prices on the lapp mint ( s ) from the same party. besides, the degree of interval between impressions on a double fail.

A U.S. $ 4 aureate coin pattern minted 1879-1880.

Thin raised lines on the surface of a mint, caused by excessive polish of the die.

The process of impressing a design into a planchet by force of the dies to create a coin.

strike doubling
Another term for machine doubling.

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An ancient greek silver medal coin weighing about 13 to 17 grams, alike in size to a U.S. quarter but much compact.

The rub of bark oil onto a mint in an attack to hide touch marks.

A coin-like object cashable for a especial product or service, such as bus rides, beer or television games.

Color acquired from chemical change on the surface.

trade dollar
A U.K. dollar coin minted from 1895 through 1935 specifically for department of commerce in the Orient.

A little U.S. 3 penny silver mint minted from 1851-1873.

The sharply cut off bottom boundary of a tear.

A credit card container designed for storing a bankroll or like quantities of coins of the like size.

type coin
Any coin of a particular design and appellation, normally referred to one of the more common dates of any specific series.

type set
A solicitation of coins of diverse designs.

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A department of state of conservation used to describe coins that never circulated in the channels of commerce, i.e. a coin without any wear from circulation.

A coin of which alone one specimen is known to exist, e.g. the U.S. 1870-S $ 3 amber piece.

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A variety show of U.S. silver dollar described in the book Morgan and Peace Dollars by Van Allen and Mallis.

A minor exchange from the basic design of a specific coin type

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want list
A tabulation of collectibles sought by a collector, often including limits on condition and/or price.

Metal lost during manage and contact with early objects.

Alteration by mechanical polish to produce a glazed surface.

world coins
A collection of coins issued by assorted nations.

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year set
A collection of coins with one of each appellation for a specific year and state. A popular birthday give

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