Top Cyber Security Interview Questions
This Cybersecurity Interview Questions web log is divided into two parts : Part A – Theoretical Cybersecurity Interview Questions and Part B – Scenario Based Cybersecurity Interview Questions. Let ’ s get down started with
Part A-Theoretical Cyber Security Interview Questions
1. What is Cryptography?
cryptanalysis is the exercise and study of techniques for securing data and communication chiefly to protect the datum from third base parties that the datum is not intended for .
2. What is the difference between Symmetric and Asymmetric encryption?
|Basis of Comparison||Symmetric Encryption||Asymmetric Encryption|
|encoding key||Same cardinal for encoding & decoding||Different keys for encoding & decoding|
|performance||encoding is fast but more vulnerable||encoding is dull ascribable to high calculation|
|algorithm||DES, 3DES, AES and RC4||Diffie-Hellman, RSA|
|Purpose||Used for bulk data infection||often used for securely exchanging secret keys|
3. What is the difference between IDS and IPS?
IDS is Intrusion Detection System and it only detects intrusions and the administrator has to take concern of preventing the intrusion. Whereas, in IPS i, Intrusion Prevention System, the system detects the invasion and besides takes actions to prevent the intrusion .
4. Explain CIA triad.
CIA stands for Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. CIA is a model that is designed to guide policies for Information Security. It is one of the most popular models used by organizations. Confidentiality The information should be accessible and clear only to authorized personnel. It should not be accessible by unauthorized personnel. The data should be powerfully encrypted equitable in shell person uses hacking to entree the data so that even if the datum is accessed, it is not clear or apprehensible. Integrity Making certain the datum has not been modified by an unauthorized entity. Integrity ensures that data is not corrupted or modified by unauthorized personnel. If an authorize individual/system is trying to modify the data and the modification wasn ’ thymine successful, then the data should be reversed back and should not be corrupted. Availability The datum should be available to the exploiter whenever the drug user requires it. Maintaining of Hardware, upgrading regularly, Data Backups and Recovery, Network Bottlenecks should be taken care of. Find out our Cyber Security Training in Top Cities/Countries
5. How is Encryption different from Hashing?
Both Encryption and Hashing are used to convert clear data into an indecipherable format. The deviation is that the encrypted data can be converted back to original data by the process of decoding but the hash data can not be converted back to original data .
6. What is a Firewall and why is it used?
A Firewall is a network security arrangement set on the boundaries of the system/network that monitors and controls net traffic. Firewalls are chiefly used to protect the system/network from viruses, worms, malware, etc. Firewalls can besides be to prevent outside access and content trickle .
7. What is the difference between VA(Vulnerability Assessment) and PT(Penetration Testing)?
Vulnerability Assessment is the procedure of finding flaws on the target. here, the organization knows that their system/network has flaws or weaknesses and want to find these flaws and prioritize the flaws for fixing. Penetration Testing is the process of finding vulnerabilities on the prey. In this case, the organization would have set up all the security system measures they could think of and would want to test if there is any other way that their system/network can be hacked .
8. What is a three-way handshake?
A tripartite handshake is a method used in a TCP/IP network to create a connection between a host and a customer. It ’ south called a three-way handshake because it is a three-step method acting in which the customer and waiter exchanges packets. The three steps are as follows :
- The client sends a SYN(Synchronize) packet to the server check if the server is up or has open ports
- The server sends SYN-ACK packet to the client if it has open ports
- The client acknowledges this and sends an ACK(Acknowledgment) packet back to the server
9. What are the response codes that can be received from a Web Application?
1xx – Informational responses
2xx – Success
3xx – Redirection
4xx – Client-side error
5xx – Server-side error Let us nowadays go ahead and take a look at some of the other Cybersecurity Interview Questions
10. What is traceroute? Why is it used?
Traceroute is a joyride that shows the path of a packet. It lists all the points ( chiefly routers ) that the packet passes through. This is used by and large when the mailboat is not reaching its finish. Traceroute is used to check where the connection stops or breaks to identify the point of failure .
11. What is the difference between HIDS and NIDS?
HIDS(Host IDS) and NIDS(Network IDS) are both Intrusion Detection System and knead for the lapp aim i, to detect the intrusions. The only difference is that the HIDS is set up on a especial host/device. It monitors the traffic of a particular device and leery system activities. On the other hand, NIDS is set up on a network. It monitors traffic of all device of the network .
12. What are the steps to set up a firewall?
Following are the steps to set up a firewall :
- Username/password : modify the default option password for a firewall device
- distant administration : disable the sport of the remote control administration
- Port forward : configure appropriate port forwarding for certain applications to work properly, such as a network server or FTP server
- DHCP server : Installing a firewall on a net with an existing DHCP server will cause dispute unless the firewall ’ randomness DHCP is disabled
- Logging : To troubleshoot firewall issues or likely attacks, ensure that log is enabled and understand how to view logs
- Policies : You should have firm security policies in place and make sure that the firewall is configured to enforce those policies .
13. Explain SSL Encryption
SSL(Secure Sockets Layer) is the industry-standard security engineering creating encrypted connections between Web Server and a Browser. This is used to maintain data privacy and to protect the information in on-line transactions. The steps for establishing an SSL association is as follows :
- A browser tries to connect to the webserver secured with SSL
- The browser sends a copy of its SSL certificate to the browser
- The browser checks if the SSL certificate is trustworthy or not. If it is trustworthy, then the browser sends a message to the web server requesting to establish an encrypted connection
- The web server sends an acknowledgment to start an SSL encrypted connection
- SSL encrypted communication takes place between the browser and the web server
14. What steps will you take to secure a server?
secure servers use the Secure Sockets Layer ( SSL ) protocol for data encoding and decoding to protect data from unauthorized interception. here are four simple ways to secure server : Step 1: Make sure you have a secure password for your root and administrator users S tep 2: The adjacent thing you need to do is make new users on your system. These will be the users you use to manage the organization S tep 3: Remove remote access from the default root/administrator accounts S tep 4: The future step is to configure your firewall rules for distant access
15. Explain Data Leakage
Data Leakage is an designed or unintentional transmission of data from within the arrangement to an external unauthorized address. It is the disclosure of confidential data to an unauthorized entity. Data escape can be divided into 3 categories based on how it happens :
- Accidental Breach: An entity unintentionally send data to an unauthorized person due to a fault or a blunder
- Intentional Breach: The authorized entity sends data to an unauthorized entity on purpose
- System Hack: Hacking techniques are used to cause data leakage
Data Leakage can be prevented by using tools, software, and strategies known as DLP(Data Leakage Prevention) Tools .
16. What are some of the common Cyberattacks?
Following are some coarse cyber attacks that could adversely affect your arrangement .
- Password Attacks
- Man in the Middle
- Drive-By Downloads
- Rogue Software
17. What is a Brute Force Attack? How can you prevent it?
Brute Force is a way of finding out the right credentials by repetitively trying all the permutations and combinations of possible credentials. In most cases, animal power attacks are automated where the tool/software automatically tries to login with a list of credentials. There are respective ways to prevent Brute Force attacks. Some of them are :
- Password Length: You can set a minimum length for password. The lengthier the password, the harder it is to find.
- Password Complexity: Including different formats of characters in the password makes brute force attacks harder. Using alpha-numeric passwords along with special characters, and upper and lower case characters increase the password complexity making it difficult to be cracked.
- Limiting Login Attempts: Set a limit on login failures. For example, you can set the limit on login failures as 3. So, when there are 3 consecutive login failures, restrict the user from logging in for some time, or send an Email or OTP to use to log in the next time. Because brute force is an automated process, limiting login attempts will break the brute force process.
18. What is Port Scanning?
Port Scanning is the technique used to identify open ports and service available on a server. Hackers use port scanning to find information that can be helpful to exploit vulnerabilities. Administrators use Port Scanning to verify the security system policies of the net. Some of the common Port Scanning Techniques are :
- Ping Scan
- TCP Half-Open
- TCP Connect
- Stealth Scanning
Cybersecurity Interview Questions
19. What are the different layers of the OSI model?
An OSI model is a address model for how applications communicate over a network. The function of an OSI character is to guide vendors and developers so the digital communication products and software programs can interoperate. Following are the OSI layers : Physical Layer: Responsible for transmission of digital data from transmitter to receiver through the communication media, Data Link Layer: Handles the motion of data to and from the physical link. It is besides responsible for encoding and decoding of data bits. Network Layer: Responsible for package forwarding and providing routing paths for network communication. Transport Layer: responsible for throughout communication over the network. It splits the datum from the above layer and passes it to the Network Layer and then ensures that all the data has successfully reached at the receiver ’ second end. Session Layer: Controls connection between the transmitter and the liquidator. It is responsible for starting, ending, and managing the seance and install, maintaining and synchronizing interaction between the transmitter and the receiver. Presentation Layer: It deals with presenting the data in a proper format and data social organization alternatively of sending crude datagrams or packets. Application Layer: It provides an interface between the application and the network. It focuses on process-to-process communication and provides a communication interface .
20. What is a VPN?
about all Cybersecurity Interview Questions will have this interrogate included. VPN stands for Virtual Private Network. It is used to create a safe and code connection. When you use a VPN, the datum from the client is sent to a point in the VPN where it is encrypted and then sent through the internet to another point. At this point, the datum is decrypted and sent to the waiter. When the server sends a response, the response is sent to a point in the VPN where it is encrypted and this encrypted datum is sent to another period in the VPN where it is decrypted. And ultimately, the decrypted datum is sent to the client. The whole point of using a VPN is to ensure encrypted data transfer .
21. What do you understand by Risk, Vulnerability & Threat in a network?
threat : person with the likely to harm a system or an organization
Vulnerability : helplessness in a system that can be exploited by a electric potential hacker
risk : likely for loss or damage when threat exploits a vulnerability
22. How can identity theft be prevented?
here ’ s what you can do to prevent identity larceny :
- guarantee potent and singular password
- Avoid sharing confidential information on-line, particularly on social media
- shop from known and trusted websites
- Use the latest version of the browsers
- Install advanced malware and spyware tools
- Use specialize security solutions against fiscal data
- Always update your organization and the software
- Protect your SSN ( Social Security Number )
23. What are black hat, white hat and grey hat hackers?
Black hat hackers are known for having huge cognition about breaking into computer networks. They can write malware which can be used to gain access to these systems. This type of hackers misuse their skills to steal information or use the hack system for malicious determination. White hat hackers use their powers for good deeds and so they are besides called Ethical Hackers. These are largely hired by companies as a security specialist that attempts to find and fix vulnerabilities and security system holes in the systems. They use their skills to help make the security better. Anonymity is merely a simple thing in Ethical Hacking & CyberSecurity. If you are interest in this sphere, check Edureka ’ s CompTIA Security+ Certification Training. Grey hat hackers are an amalgamation of a white hat and black hat hacker. They look for system vulnerabilities without the owner ’ s license. If they find any vulnerabilities, they report it to the owner. Unlike Black hat hackers, they do not exploit the vulnerabilities found .
24. How often should you perform Patch management?
Patch management should be done adenine soon as it is released. For windows, once the patch is released it should be applied to all machines, not late than one month. same goes for network devices, patch it vitamin a soon as it is released. Proper patch management should be followed .
25. How would you reset a password-protected BIOS configuration?
Since BIOS is a pre-boot system it has its own repositing mechanism for settings and preferences. A simple way to reset is by popping out the CMOS battery so that the memory storing the settings lose its office supply and as a result, it will lose its determine .
26. Explain MITM attack and how to prevent it?
A MITM(Man-in-the-Middle) attack is a type of approach where the hacker places himself in between the communication of two parties and steal the information. Suppose there are two parties A and B having a communication. then the hacker joins this communication. He impersonates as party B to A and impersonates as party A in front of B. The data from both the parties are sent to the hacker and the hacker redirects the datum to the address party after stealing the datum required. While the two parties think that they are communicating with each other, in world, they are communicating with the hack. You can prevent MITM attack by using the comply practices :
- Use VPN
- Use strong WEP/WPA encryption
- Use Intrusion Detection Systems
- Force HTTPS
- Public Key Pair Based Authentication
27. Explain DDOS attack and how to prevent it?
This again is an authoritative Cybersecurity Interview Question. A DDOS(Distributed Denial of Service) fire is a cyberattack that causes the servers to refuse to provide services to genuine clients. DDOS attack can be classified into two types :
- Flooding attacks: In this type, the hacker sends a huge amount of traffic to the server which the server can not handle. And hence, the server stops functioning. This type of attack is usually executed by using automated programs that continuously send packets to the server.
- Crash attacks: In this type, the hackers exploit a bug on the server resulting in the system to crash and hence the server is not able to provide service to the clients.
You can prevent DDOS attacks by using the pursue practices :
- Use Anti-DDOS services
- Configure Firewalls and Routers
- Use Front-End Hardware
- Use Load Balancing
- Handle Spikes in Traffic
Cybersecurity Interview Questions
28. Explain XSS attack and how to prevent it?
XSS(Cross-Site Scripting) is a cyberattack that enables hackers to inject malicious client-side scripts into web pages. ten can be used to hijack sessions and steal cookies, modify DOM, distant code execution, crash the server etc. You can prevent x attacks by using the play along practices :
- Validate user inputs
- Sanitize user inputs
- Encode special characters
- Use Anti-XSS services/tools
- Use XSS HTML Filter
29. What is an ARP and how does it work?
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol address ( IP address ) to a physical machine address that is recognized in the local network. When an entrance mailboat destined for a host machine on a particular local area network arrives at a gateway, the gateway asks the ARP program to find a physical horde or MAC address that matches the IP address. The ARP broadcast looks in the ARP hoard and, if it finds the address, provides it so that the packet can be converted to the right packet duration and format and sent to the machine. If no submission is found for the IP address, ARP broadcasts a request package in a special format to all the machines on the LAN to see if one machine knows that it has that IP address associated with it .
30. What is port blocking within LAN?
Restricting the users from accessing a located of services within the local sphere net is called port block. Stopping the source to not to access the finish node via ports. As the application works on the ports, so ports are blocked to restricts the access filling up the security holes in the network infrastructure .
31. What protocols fall under TCP/IP internet layer?
|transmission control protocol/internet protocol||TCP/IP Protocol Examples|
|lotion||NFS, NIS+, DNS, telnet, file transfer protocol, rlogin, rsh, rcp, RIP, RDISC, SNMP and others|
|tape drive||TCP, UDP|
|internet||IP, ARP, ICMP|
|Data Link|| PPP, IEEE 802.2
Read more: Top 3 question that ask in interview in 2022
|physical network||Ethernet ( IEEE 802.3 ) Token ring, RS-232, others|
32. What is a Botnet?
A Botnet is a phone number of devices connected to the internet where each device has one or more bots running on it. The bots on the devices and malicious scripts used to hack a victim. Botnets can be used to steal data, send spams and execute a DDOS attack .
33. What are salted hashes?
Salt is a random datum. When a properly protected password system receives a new password, it creates a hash value of that password, a random salt value, and then the combined value is stored in its database. This helps to defend against dictionary attacks and known hash attacks. model : If person uses the lapp password on two different systems and they are being used using the lapp hash algorithm, the hash value would be like, however, if evening one of the system uses salt with the hashes, the rate will be different .
34. Explain SSL and TLS
SSL is meant to verify the sender ’ mho identity but it doesn ’ t search for anything more than that. SSL can help you track the person you are talking to but that can besides be tricked at times. TLS is besides an identification tool precisely like SSL, but it offers better security features. It provides extra protective covering to the data and hence SSL and TLS are frequently used together for better protection .
35. What is data protection in transit vs data protection at rest?
|Data Protection in transit||Data protection at rest|
|When data is going from waiter to customer||When data good exists in its database or on its unvoiced drive|
|Effective Data protection measures for in-transit data are critical as data is less batten when in motion||Data at rest is sometimes considered to be less vulnerable than data in passage|
36. What is 2FA and how can it be implemented for public websites?
An excess layer of security system that is known as “multi-factor authentication“. Requires not only a password and username but besides something that only, and only, that drug user has on them, i.e. a while of information merely they should know or have immediately to hired hand – such as a physical keepsake. Authenticator apps replace the need to obtain a verification code via text, voice call or electronic mail .
37. What is Cognitive Cybersecurity?
cognitive Cybersecurity is an application of AI technologies patterned on human think processes to detect threats and protect physical and digital systems. Self-learning security systems use data mining, form realization, and natural language process to simulate the human genius, albeit in a high-powered calculator model .
38. What is the difference between VPN and VLAN?
|Helps to group workstations that are not within the lapp locations into the same broadcast sphere||Related to remote access to the net of a company|
|Means to logically segregate networks without physically segregating them with respective switches||Used to connect two points in a procure and encrypted burrow|
|Saves the datum from prying eyes while in transit and no one on the net can capture the packets and read the data||Does not involve any encoding proficiency but it is only used to slice up your logical network into unlike sections for the purpose of management and security|
39. Explain Phishing and how to prevent it?
Phishing is a Cyberattack in which a hacker disguises as a trustworthy person or occupation and undertake to steal sensitive fiscal or personal information through deceitful electronic mail or blink of an eye message. You can prevent Phishing attacks by using the trace practices :
- Don’t enter sensitive information in the webpages that you don’t trust
- Verify the site’s security
- Use Firewalls
- Use AntiVirus Software that has Internet Security
- Use Anti-Phishing Toolbar
40. Explain SQL Injection and how to prevent it?
SQL Injection ( SQLi ) is a code injection fire where an attacker manipulates the data being sent to the server to execute malicious SQL statements to control a web application ’ second database server, thereby accessing, modifying and deleting unauthorized data. This fire is chiefly used to take over database servers. You can prevent SQL Injection attacks by using the adopt practices :
- Use prepared statements
- Use Stored Procedures
- Validate user input
This brings us to the end of Theory Based Cybersecurity Interview Questions Want to upskill yourself to get ahead in your career ? Check out this video
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Part B – Scenario Based Cybersec urity Interview Questions
1. Here’s a situation- You receive the following email from the help desk:
Dear XYZ Email drug user, To create space for more users we ’ ra deleting all inactive electronic mail accounts. here ’ s what you have to send to save your account from getting deleted :
- Name (first and last):
- Email Login:
- Date of birth:
- Alternate email
If we don ’ thymine receive the above information from you by the end of the week, your e-mail report will be terminated. If you’re a user what do you do? Justify your answer. This e-mail is a classic example of “phishing” – trying to trick you into “biting”. The justification is the generalize means of addressing the liquidator which is used in mass spam emails. Above that, a corporate caller will never ask for personal details on mail. They want your information. Don ’ t answer to email, moment messages ( IM ), texts, call calls, etc., asking you for your password or other private data. You should never disclose your password to anyone, even if they say they work for UCSC, ITS, or other campus organizations .
2. A friend of yours sends an e-card to your mail. You have to click on the attachment to get the card.
What do you do? Justify your answer There are four risks here :
- Some attachments contain viruses or early malicious programs, so just in general, it ’ second hazardous to open obscure or unasked attachments .
- besides, in some cases merely clicking on a malicious associate can infect a computer, therefore unless you are certain a liaison is condom, don ’ metric ton pawl on it .
- Email addresses can be faked, so just because the electronic mail says it is from person you know, you can ’ triiodothyronine be certain of this without checking with the person .
- finally, some websites and links look lawful, but they ’ re very hoaxes designed to steal your information .
3. One of the staff members in XYZ subscribes to many free magazines. Now, to activate her subscriptions one of the magazines asked for her month of birth, second asked for her year of birth, the other one asked for her maiden name.
What do you infer from this situation? Justify. All three newsletters credibly have the like rear company or are distributed through the lapp overhaul. The parent party or service can combine person pieces of seemingly-harmless data and use or sell it for identity larceny It is flush possible that there is a one-fourth newsletter that asks for a day of give birth as one of the activation questions frequently questions about personal information are optional. In accession to being leery about situations like the one report here, never provide personal information when it is not legitimately necessary, or to people or companies, you don ’ t personally know .
4. In our computing labs, print billing is often tied to the user’s login. Sometimes people call to complain about bills for printing they never did only to find out that the bills are, indeed, correct.
What do you infer from this situation? Justify. sometimes they realize they loaned their explanation to a acquaintance who couldn ’ triiodothyronine remember his/her password, and the supporter did the print. Thus the charges. It ’ sulfur besides potential that person came in behind them and used their account This is an emergence with shared or populace computers in general. If you don ’ thymine log out of the computer properly when you leave, person else can come in behind you and retrieve what you were doing, use your accounts, etc. Always log out of all accounts, discontinue programs, and close browser windows before you walk aside .
5. There is this case that happened in my computer lab. A friend of mine used their yahoo account at a computer lab on campus. She ensured that her account was not left open before she left the lab. Someone came after her and used the same browser to re-access her account. and they started sending emails from it.
What do you think might be going on here? The first person credibly didn ’ metric ton log out of her account, so the new person could fair go to history and access her account. Another hypothesis is that she did log out, but didn ’ triiodothyronine pass her web hoard. ( This is done through the browser menu to net pages that the browser has saved for future use. )
6. Two different offices on campus are working to straighten out an error in an employee’s bank account due to a direct deposit mistake.
Office # 1 emails the decline report and deposit data to office # 2, which promptly fixes the problem. The employee confirms with the bank that everything has, indeed, been straightened out. What is wrong here? report and sediment information is medium data that could be used for identity larceny. Sending this or any kind of sensitive information by e-mail is very bad because e-mail is typically not private or secure. Anyone who knows how can access it anywhere along its path. As an alternative, the two offices could have called each early or worked with ITS to send the information a more secure way .
7. The mouse on your computer screen starts to move around on its own and click on things on your desktop. What do you do?
a ) Call your co-workers over so they can see b ) Disconnect your calculator from the network speed of light ) Unplug your shiner vitamin d ) Tell your supervisor e ) Turn your calculator off fluorine ) Run anti-virus gravitational constant ) All of the above Select all the options that apply. Right answer is B & D. This is decidedly fishy. immediately report the problem to your supervisory program and the ITS Support Center : itrequest.ucsc.edu, 459-HELP ( 4357 ), help @ ucsc.edu or Kerr Hall board 54, M-F 8AM-5PM besides, since it seems potential that person is controlling the calculator remotely, it is well if you can disconnect the computer from the network ( and turn off radio if you have it ) until avail arrives. If possible, don ’ thyroxine turn off the computer .
8. Below is a list of passwords pulled out a database.
A. @ # $ ) * & ^ % B. akHGksmLN C.UcSc4Evr ! D.Password1 Which of the following passwords meets UCSC’s password requirements? Answer is UcSc4Evr ! This is the merely choice that meets all of the following UCSC requirements : At least 8 characters in length Contains at least 3 of the following 4 types of characters : lower event letters, upper case letters, numbers, special characters not a word preceded or followed by a finger
9. You receive an email from your bank telling you there is a problem with your account. The email provides instructions and a link so you can log into your account and fix the problem.
What should you do? Delete the electronic mail. Better even, use the web client ( e.g. gmail, yokel mail, etc. ) and report it as spam or phishing, then delete it. Any unasked electronic mail or phone call asking you to enter your report information, disclose your password, fiscal report data, social security number, or other personal or private information is fishy – flush if it appears to be from a caller you are familiar with. Always contact the sender using a method you know is lawful to verify that the message is from them .
10. A while back, the IT folks got a number of complaints that one of our campus computers was sending out Viagra spam. They checked it out, and the reports were true: a hacker had installed a program on the computer that made it automatically send out tons of spam email without the computer owner’s knowledge.
How do you think the hacker got into the computer to set this up? This was actually the result of a chop password. Using passwords that can ’ t be easily guessed, and protecting your passwords by not sharing them or writing them down can help to prevent this. Passwords should be at least 8 characters in duration and use a mixture of upper and lower case letters, numbers, and symbols. even though in this case it was a hack password, other things that could possibly lead to this are :
- Out of date patches/updates
- No anti-virus software or out of date anti-virus software
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