50+ Top Data Structure Interview Questions and Answers [Updated]

A data structure can be any organization, management, and storehouse format of data that allows effective access and modification. It is a solicitation of data values, relationships amongst them, and the respective functions or operations that can be applied to the data. Data structures are a foundational concept of programming which is heavy utilized in algorithm invention. As such, it is important for any programmer, regardless of their primary scheduling terminology, to have a good understand of the concept american samoa good as what data structure questions are normally asked. here we cover data social organization interview questions that you might expect when applying for a position .

Top Data Structure Interview Questions and Answers

Any scheduling speech consultation can have a few or many questions based on data structures. here are the top datum structures and algorithm interview questions with their respective answers.

If you prefer, you may download our Data Structure Interview Questions and Answers PDF .

1. What is a data structure?

A data structure is a commodious way to organize and manipulate data. There are many kinds of data structures and each of them has distinct applications. For example, compiler implementations use hash tables for looking up identifiers. similarly, B-trees are suitable for databases. Data structures are used in Artificial Intelligence, compiler blueprint, database management, graphics, numerical analysis, operating systems, and statistical analysis .

2. How does a linear data structure differ from a non-linear data structure?

If the elements of a data structure form a sequence or a analogue list then it is called a linear data social organization. Non-linear data structures are those in which the traversal of nodes is done non-linearly. Arrays, linked lists, stacks, and queues are examples of analogue data structures, while graphs and trees are examples of non-linear data structures .

3. What are the applications of data structures?

Some practical applications of data structures are :

  • Storing data in a tabular form. For example, the contact details of an individual can be stored in arrays.
  • Arrays are widely used in image processing and speech processing.
  • Music players and image sliders use linked lists to switch between items.
  • A queue is used for job scheduling – the arrangement of data packets for communication.
  • A tree is used by the decision tree algorithm in machine learning.
  • Technologies like blockchain and cryptography are based on hashing algorithms.
  • Matrices are widely used to represent data and plot graphs, and perform statistical analysis.

4. What is the difference between file structure and storage structure?

  • File Structure: A hard disk or external device (such as USB), stores data that remains intact till manually deleted. Such a representation of data into secondary or auxiliary memory is called a file structure. 
  • Storage Structure: In this type of structure, data (variables, constants, etc.) are stored in the main memory, i.e. RAM, and is deleted once the function that uses this data has been completed.

5. What are the various operations that can be performed on a data structure?

The succeed are the operations that can be performed on a datum structure :

  • Deletion: Deleting an existing element from the data structure.
  • Insertion: Adding a new element to the data structure.
  • Searching: Find the location of an element, if it exists, in the data structure.
  • Sorting: Arranging elements of the data structure in ascending or descending order for numerical data, and dictionary order for alphanumeric data.
  • Traversal: Accessing each element of the data structure once for processing.

6. Explain the postfix expression.

In a suffix expression, the operator is fixed after the operands. Some examples are :

  • B++ (i.e. B+B)
  • AB+ (i.e. A+B)
  • ABC*+ (i.e. A+B*C)
  • AB*CD*+ (i.e. A*B + C*D)

7. Which data structures are used for BFS and DFS of a graph?

Breadth-First Search ( BFS ) of a graph uses a queue. Depth First Search ( DFS ) of a graph uses a push-down list, but it can besides be implemented using recursion through a officiate call stack .

8. What is a multidimensional array?

If an align has more than two dimensions, it is called a multidimensional array. They are besides called an array of arrays. For case, a three-d array will look like :

int 3darr[10][20][30] 

– this array can store 10 * 20 * 30 elements .

Assigning values

int ndarr [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 5 ] = { { { 1,2,4,5 }, { 5,6,7,9 }, { 6,5,4,3 } }, { { 1,1,3,4 }, { 2,3,4,6 }, { 5,6,7,8 } } } ;

Accessing elements

To access each component, we need three nest loops, say i, joule, kilobyte, so that we can get the measure as ndarr [ one ] [ j ] [ kelvin ]

9. What is a stack? State some applications.

A batch is a linear datum social organization that follows either the LIFO ( last In First Out ) or FILO ( First In last Out ) approach for accessing elements. Push, pop, and peek are the basic operations of a stack. Some applications of a push-down list are :

  • Checking for balanced parentheses in an expression
  • The evaluation of a postfix expression
  • Implementing two stacks in an array
  • Infix to postfix conversion
  • Reversing a string

10. What is a queue? How is it different from a stack?

A line up is a mannequin of linear structure that follows the FIFO ( First In First Out ) set about for accessing elements. Dequeue, enqueue, battlefront, and rear are basic operations on a line up. Like a stack, a line up can be implemented using arrays and linked lists. In a smokestack, the item that is most recently added is removed first. contrary to this, in the case of a queue, the item least recently added is removed beginning .

11. What is a binary search? When is it best used?

A binary star search is an algorithm that starts with searching from the middle element. If the middle element is not the aim element then it checks if it should search the lower half or the higher half. The process continues until the target element is found. The binary search works good when applied to a list with classify or order elements .

12. How do you reference all the elements in a one-dimension array?

We can reference all the elements in a one-dimension array using an index closed circuit. The counter runs from 0 to the maximal array size, say n, minus one. All elements of the one-dimension align are referenced in sequence by using the loop anticipate as the range subscript .

13. What are FIFO and LIFO?

Both FIFO and LIFO are approaches to accessing, storing, and retrieving elements from a data structure. LIFO stands for last In First Out. In this approach, the most recently stored datum is the one to be extracted first. FIFO stands for First In First Out. With this overture, the data that is stored earliest will be extracted first base .

14. What is a linked list?

In a associate list, elements are stored linearly, but the physical placements do not relate to the ordering in the memory ; rather, each element points to the next node. The last one points to a exterminator indicating the end of the number. There are many types of associate lists, such as unmarried, double, circular, and multiple. A elementary individually linked tilt can be drawn as :


15. How does dynamic memory allocation help in managing data?

Dynamic memory allocation helps in storing dim-witted structured data types. It can besides combine individually allocated integrated blocks for forming composite structures that compress and expand as required.

16. What is the difference between NULL and VOID?

While NULL is a value, VOID is a datum type identifier. A variable assigned with a NULL measure represents an evacuate value. The VOID is used for identifying pointers having no initial size .

17. If you are using the language C to implement the heterogeneous linked list, what pointer type should be used?

We can use void pointers. Unsigned char pointers are another option. This way, we can store any data type in the list. For case :

structa{

structa *next;

s_ize d_size;

 }


18. How does Pop differ from Push?

Both push and pop operations pertain to a stack. Data is added to the stack using the push process, while it is retrieved using the pop operation .

19. How does variable declaration affect memory allocation?

The sum amount of memory to be allocated or reserved in the case of a variable star resolution depends on the datum type used. For exemplify, declaring an integer type variable reserves 4 bytes of memory space while declaring a double varying reserves 8 bytes of the available memory .

20. Write the syntax in C to create a node in the singly linked list.

newNode = Node(data); //creates a new node.


21. What is data abstraction?

Data abstractedness helps in dividing complex data problems into smaller, easy-to-manage parts. It starts with specifying all the involved data objects and the diverse operations to be performed without worrying besides much about the direction data is stored .


22. Write a C program to insert a node in a circular singly list at the beginning.

In a round linked list, the final pointer points to the head ( first lymph node ). For this, we use an external cursor that points to the last node, and the last- > following points to the first node. We take the last node pointer because it saves us from traversing the integral list while inserting a node in the begin or goal.

Program steps

  • Create a node N
  • N->next = last->next
  • last->next = N

Code:

struct Node *addBeginning(struct Node *last, int data)

{

/*check if list empty, if so create a node, else proceed as below*/

// dynamically create a node

 struct Node *N 

= (struct Node *)malloc(sizeof(struct Node)); 

 // Assign the data. 

 N -> data = data; 

 // last pointer becomes the first node 

 N -> next = last -> next; 

 last -> next = N; 

 return last; 

}


23. How do you insert a new item in a binary search tree?

As a binary research corner doesn ’ triiodothyronine permit for duplicates, the new item to be inserted must be alone. Assuming it is, we will proceed with checking whether the tree is empty or not. If it is vacate, then the new detail will be inserted into the ancestor node.

however, if the tree is non-empty, then we will refer to the key of the new item. When it is smaller than the ancestor detail ’ second cardinal, the new item will be added to the entrust subtree. If the new item ’ randomness key is bigger than the root detail ’ south key, then the new detail is inserted into the right subtree .


24. How does the selection sort work on an array?

The excerpt sort begins with finding the smallest element. It is switched with the element award at subscript 0. future, the smallest chemical element in the remaining subarray is located and switched with the component occupy in the subscript 1. The aforesaid procedure is repeated until the biggest component is placed at the subscript n-1, where normality represents the size of the given array .


25. Write the pseudocode to perform in-order traversal on a binary tree.

In-order traversal is a depth-first traversal. The method acting is called recursively to perform traversal on a binary star tree. The code is as follows :

structbtnode

{

structbtnode *left;

structbtnode *right;

}

*root = NULL, *temp = NULL;

voidinorder(struct btnode *temp)

{

if (root == NULL)

{

printf("Root is empty");

return;

}

if (temp->left != NULL)

inorder(temp->left);

if (temp->right != NULL)

inorder(t->right);

}

26. Write the recursive C function to count the number of nodes present in a binary tree.

staticint counter = 0;

intcountnodes(struct node *root)

{

if(root != NULL)

{

countnodes(root->left);

counter++;

countnodes(root->right);

}

return counter;

}

27. Write a recursive C function to calculate the height of a binary tree.

To find the stature using recursion, we find the utmost of the stature of subtrees on the leave and properly sides and then add it with the etymon.

staticint counter = 0;

intcountnodes(struct node *root)

{

if(root != NULL)

{

countnodes(root->left);

counter++;

countnodes(root->right);

}

return counter;

}

28. How is memory affected by signed and unsigned numbers?

For sign numbers, the first bit is reserved for indicating whether the number is positive or negative. Hence, it has one bit less for storing the measure. Unlike bless numbers, unsigned numbers have all the bits available for storing the act.

The effect of the aforementioned can be seen in the measure range available to signed and unsigned numbers. While an unsigned 8-bit number can have a scope of 0 to 255, an 8-bit bless number has a compass varying from -128 to 127 .

29. Do all declaration statements result in a fixed memory reservation?

Except for pointers, all announcement statements result in a situate memory reservation. rather of allocating memory for storing data, a arrow declaration results in allocating memory for storing the address of the pointer variable. For pointers, actual memory allotment for the datum happens during runtime .

30. How does an array differ from a stack?

A smokestack follows the LIFO approach. This means that data handling follows a specific sequence where the latest datum chemical element is the one to be retrieved beginning. Unlike a push-down list, an align doesn ’ triiodothyronine follow any particular sequence for adding or retrieving data. Adding or retrieving an chemical element in an align is done by referring to the array index .

31. What is an AVL tree?

An AVL tree is a type of Binary Search Tree which is always in a partially-balanced submit. The measure of the balance is given by the deviation of the heights of the subtrees from the root node of the AVL tree.

32. How does an array differ from a linked list?

The be are the differences between an align and a linked tilt :

  • Additional Memory: For each element belonging to a linked list, extra memory space is required for storing the pointer. Arrays have no such requirement.
  • Cache: In comparison to linked lists, arrays have better cache locality, which can significantly enhance performance in various scenarios.
  • Insertion and Deletion: It is easy to add or delete elements in a linked list. Inserting and deleting elements for an array is comparatively expensive.
  • Random Access: Linked lists do not allow random access, while arrays do.
  • Size: While the size of an array is fixed, the size of a linked list is dynamic.

33. What are Infix, Prefix, and Postfix notations?

  • Infix Notation: Operators are written between the operands. This is the standard way of writing expressions. For example: A * (B + C) / D
  • Postfix Notation/Reverse Polish Notation: Operators are written after the operands, hence the name. For example: A B C + * D /

  • Prefix Notation/Polish Notation: Operators are written before the operands. / * A + B C D is the prefix notation equivalent of the aforementioned postfix notation example.

34. What is a linked list and what are the various types?

In a yoke list, each element is a distinct aim. Like arrays, linked lists are a linear type of data structure. In addition to data, every element of a linked tilt has a citation to the future element. The respective types of linked lists are :

  • Singly linked list: Each node stores the address or reference of the next node in the linked list, except for the last node that stores NULL.
  • Doubly linked list: Each node keeps two references. One point to the next node and the other points to the previous node.
  • Circular linked list: In this type of linked list, all nodes are connected to form a circle. There is no NULL at the end. A circular linked list can either be a single circular linked list or a double circular linked list.

35. How will you implement a stack using queue and vice-versa?

It is possible to implement a stack using two queues. There are two options : either to make the push operation dearly-won or the pop operation dearly-won. A line up can besides be implemented with two stacks. There are two options : either to make the enQueue operation costly or the deQueue process dearly-won .

36. Which data structures are used for implementing LRU cache?

By organizing items in regulate of use, a Least Recently Used or LRU hoard allows quick identification of an item that hasn ’ triiodothyronine been put to use for the longest time. There are two data structures are used for implementing an LRU hoard :

  • Queue: Implemented using a doubly-linked list. The maximum size of the queue is determined by the total number of frames available, i.e. the cache size. While the most recently used pages will be near the rear end of the queue, the least recently used pages will be near the queue’s front end.
  • Hashmap: This has the page number as the key along with the address of the corresponding queue node as the value.

37. What are the various approaches for developing algorithms?

There are 3 main approaches to developing algorithms :

  • Divide and Conquer: Involves dividing the entire problem into a number of subproblems and then solving each of them independently.
  • Dynamic Programming: Identical to the divide and conquer approach with the exception that all subproblems are solved together
  • Greedy Approach: Finds a solution by choosing the next best option.

38. State some examples of both greedy and divide and conquer algorithms.

Examples of algorithm that follow the avaricious approach are :

  • Dijkstra’s Minimum Spanning Tree
  • Graph – Map Coloring
  • Graph – Vertex Cover
  • Job Scheduling Problem
  • Knapsack Problem
  • Kruskal’s Minimal Spanning Tree
  • Prim’s Minimal Spanning Tree
  • Travelling Salesman

Examples of the divide and appropriate overture are :

  • Binary Search

  • Closest Pair (or Points)
  • Merge Sort
  • Quick Sort
  • Strassen’s Matrix Multiplication

39. How does insertion sort differ from selection sort?

Both insertion and excerpt approaches maintain two sub-lists, sorted and uncategorized. Each takes one component from the unsorted sub-list and places it into the screen sub-list. The eminence between the two sorting processes lies in the treatment of the current chemical element. Insertion sort takes the current element and places it in the grouped sublist at the appropriate location. Selection classify searches for the minimum respect in the uncategorized sub-list and replaces the lapp with the present component .

40. What do you understand by shell sort?

The shell kind can be understood as a variant of the insertion kind. The approach divides the integral list into smaller sub-lists based on some break variable. Each sub-list is then sorted using insertion classify .

41. Can you explain tree traversal?

The process for visiting all the nodes of a tree is called corner traversal. It always starts from the root node and there are three ways of doing it :

  • In-order Traversal
  • Pre-order Traversal
  • Post-order Traversal

42. What is a spanning tree? What is the maximum number of spanning trees a graph can have?

A cross tree is a subset of a graph that has all the vertices but with the minimal potential total of edges. A spanning tree can not be disconnected and does not have cycles. The maximum total of spanning trees that a graph can have depends on how many connections there are. A complete adrift graph with normality numeral of nodes can have a utmost of n-1 count of spanning trees.

43. How does Kruskal’s Algorithm work?

Kruskal ’ s algorithm treats a graph as a afforest and each node in it as an individual tree. A tree connects to another tree only if it :

  • Has the least cost among all the available options
  • Does not violate MST properties

44. What is a heap?

A heap is a limited balance binary tree in which the root node key is compared with its children and arranged accordingly. It can be of two types :

  • Min-Heap: The parent node has a key value less than its children.
  • Max-Heap: The parent node has a key value greater than its children.

45. What is recursion?

The ability to allow a function or faculty to call itself is called recursion. Either a serve fluorine calls itself directly or calls another affair ‘ g ’ that in turning calls the affair ‘ farad. The officiate farad is known as the recursive function and it follows recursive properties, which are :

  • Base criteria: Where the recursive function stops calling itself.
  • Progressive approach: Where the recursive function tries to meet the base criteria in each iteration.

46. What is the Tower of Hanoi problem?

The Tower of Hanoi is a mathematical perplex that comprises three towers ( or peg ) and more than one ring. Each ring is of varying size and stacked upon one another such that the larger one is beneath the smaller one. The goal of the Tower of Hanoi problem is to move the loom of the disk from one peg to another without breaking the properties.

47. How do the BFS (Breadth-First Search) and DFS (Depth First Search) algorithms work?

The BFS algorithm traverses a graph in the breadthwards apparent motion. It uses a line up to remember the adjacent vertex for starting a search when a dead end occurs in any iteration. A DFS algorithm traverses a graph in the depthward gesture. It uses a stack for remembering the future vertex to start a search when coming across a absolutely end in an iteration .

48. What do you understand by hashing?

The technique of converting a range of winder values into a crop of indexes of an array is known as hash. It is possible to create associative data memory using hashish tables where data indices can be found by providing the represent winder values .

49. What is a Minimum Spanning Tree? How does Prim’s algorithm find it?

An MST or Minimum Spanning Tree is a spanning tree in a slant graph that has the minimal weight of all the possible cross trees. Each node is treated as a individual tree by Prim ’ s algorithm while adding newfangled nodes to the spanning tree from the available graph .

50. What is the interpolation search technique?

The interjection search technique is an enhanced random variable of binary star search. It works on the probing put of the necessitate value .

51. How do you check if the given Binary Tree is BST or not?

Simply perform an in order traversal of the given binary star tree while keeping path of the previous samara value. If the stream samara prize is greater, then continue, differently render false. The binary tree is BST if the in order traversal of the binary star tree is sorted .

Conclusion

That sums up our list of the top DS and algo interview questions. These DS interview questions are besides helpful in other programming interviews.

Download our Data Structure Interview Questions and Answers PDF to study these questions whenever you like. If you ’ re looking to improve your data structure cognition, try the best datum structure tutorials. These interview questions on data structures are all-important for any program interview, so don ’ thymine ignore them. Some of them are basic data structure interview questions, while others are data consultation questions for experience developers. Either way, they ‘re all important concepts. adept fortune !

FAQs

What data structures are asked in interviews?

You ’ ll be asked about stacks, queues, arrays, linked lists, heaps and trees in your dsa interview questions. Your interviewer will test you on all of them, so preceptor ’ t leave out any data structure .

What is DS and why is it required?

A data structure is a solicitation of data stored in a particular way that makes it easy to manage and manipulate. With good data structure use, you can efficiently traversal and abstract data, ampere well as recycle it. This is why data structure interview questions are present for about every software development role .

What is the difference between data structures and algorithms?

A datum structure allows you to store data in an effective and mastermind manner. An algorithm is a succession of steps that tell how to solve a detail trouble.

What are the 3 characteristics of data structures?

The 3 characteristics of data structures are whether they are analogue or nonlinear ; whether they are homogeneous or heterogeneous ; and whether they are static or active. These properties determine what data structure it is. For case, an range is analogue and a graph is nonlinear. People are also reading:

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