Networking Interview Questions
These questions will assess your technical skills, know and system preferences. Interviewers want to see whether you can well communicate technical requirements. They will test the technical cognition necessity to get the job done. This article lists 100+ network interview questions that are categorized into two main segments –
Networking Interview Questions For Freshers
Let ’ s start with the basic network interview questions. This section covers networking interview questions for freshers .
Q1. What is a network?
Ans. A network consists of two or more distinguish devices linked together such that they can communicate. Networks can be classified according to different criteria such as setting, type of connection, functional relationship, regional anatomy, or affair, among others.
Q2. What are the different types of networks?
Ans. Considering the size or span of a network, we can classify them as follows :
- PAN (Personal Area Network) – PAN is made up of devices used by a single person. It has a range of a few meters.
- WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network) – It is a PAN network that uses wireless technologies as a medium.
- LAN (Local Area Network) – LAN is a network whose range is limited to a relatively small area, such as a room, a building, an aeroplane, etc.
- WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) – WLAN is a LAN network that uses wireless means of communication. It is a widely used configuration due to its scalability and because it does not require the installation of cables.
- CAN (Campus Area Network) – A network of high-speed devices that connects LANs in a limited geographical area, such as a university campus, a military base, etc.
- MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) or metropolitan area network – It is a high-speed (broadband) network providing coverage in a larger geographic area than a campus, but still limited.
- WAN (Wide Area Network) – WAN extends over a large geographical area using unusual means of communication, such as satellites, interoceanic cables, fibre optics, etc. Use public media.
- VLAN – It is a type of logical or virtual LAN, mounted on a physical network, in order to increase security and performance. In special cases, thanks to the 802.11Q protocol (also called QinQ), it is possible to mount virtual networks on WAN networks. It is important not to confuse this implementation with VPN technology.
Read more – What is Networking?
Q3. What is Network Cabling?
Ans. Network cables can connect two computers or calculator systems immediately. A cable is a cord that is made up of different conductors, which are insulated from each early. This cord is normally protected by a envelop for better persuasiveness and flexibility .
To choose a network cable television, several aspects must be taken into bill such as –
- The distance that must be covered with that cable television
- The maximal data transmission speed
- The coating of the cable
- The type of network to be created
- The type of braid, shielding, and/or cocktail dress
Q4. What are the different types of network cables used in networking?
Ans. The different types of cables used in networks are –
- Unshielded writhe Pair ( UTP ) Cable
- Shielded wrench Pair ( STP ) Cable
- cable Installation Guides
- Coaxial Cable
- Fibre Optic Cable
- radio receiver LANs
Q5. What is a ‘subnet’?
Ans. A ‘ subnet ’ is a generic term for a section of an extensive network, normally separated by a bridge or a router. It besides works for the network ’ mho broadcast domains, manages dealings flow, and helps increasing network operation. Uses of the subnet in networking include :
- Relieving network congestion
- Reallocating IP addresses
- Improving network security
Q6. What is DNS?
Ans. The Domain Name System ( DNS ) is a cardinal separate of the internet, providing a way to match names ( a web site you ’ re seeking ) to numbers ( the address for the web site ). Anything connected to the internet – laptops, tablets, mobile phones, and websites – has an Internet Protocol ( IP ) address made up of numbers .
Explore – what is network security?
Q7. Differentiate between ‘forward lookup’ and ‘reverse lookup’ in DNS?
Ans. Following are the major differences between a forth search and rearward search in DNS :
|Forward DNS lookup||Reverse DNS lookup|
|Converts a homo remark or a domain name to an IP address||Converts an IP address into a sphere name|
|Has a map between hostnames and IP addresses||Has a map that relates IP addresses to hostnames|
|Used for a web site or other server access||Used for net trouble-shoot|
|Utilizes unlike servers with different IP addresses||Resolves reverse search queries where a client requests a hostname by providing an IP address|
|Uses A Records ( basic ) to identify any IP address for a detail hostname||Uses DNS pointer read to identify a hostname for a given IP address|
Q8. What is Network Topology?
Ans. This is among the crucial network consultation questions. Network topology is the physical or coherent agreement in which the devices or nodes of a network ( e.g. computers, printers, servers, hubs, switches, routers, etc. ) are interconnected with each other over a communication medium. It consists of two parts – the physical regional anatomy, which is the actual placement of the cables ( the media ), and the coherent topology, which defines how the hosts access the media .
Types of network topologies –
Bus – In the bus network regional anatomy, each workstation is connected to a main cable called a bus. consequently, in effect, each workstation is immediately connected to every early workstation on the network .
Star – In the ace network topology, there is a central calculator or server to which all workstations are directly connected. Each workstation is indirectly connected to the other through the central computer .
Ring – In the call network topology, the workstations are connected in a closed-loop shape. adjacent workstation pairs are directly connected. early pairs of workstations are indirectly connected, passing data through one or more average nodes .
Mesh – Mesh network topology has two forms – full and partial interlock. In the full net regional anatomy, each workstation is directly connected. In the overtone engagement topology, some workstations are connected to all the others, and some are connected only to the other nodes with which they exchange more data .
Tree – The tree network topology uses two or more leading networks connected to each other. The central computers in star networks are connected to the main bus. frankincense, a corner network is a busbar net of asterisk networks .
Q9. What are ‘client’ and ‘server’ in a network?
Ans. Clients and servers are separate coherent entities that work in concert over a net to accomplish a tax .
A client lotion is the element of communication that requests or requests a network military service, for example, accessing a web page, or downloading a file, or sending an electronic mail .
A waiter application is the element of communication that responds to customer requests, providing the compulsory service, that is, sending the web page or the requested file or electronic mail .
The client-server model is used by computer applications such as e-mail, the cosmopolitan world wide web, and network print .
Q10. What is a ‘frame relay’ and in which layer does it operate?
Ans. Frame Relay is a data associate layer digital packet-switched network protocol engineering designed to connect local area networks ( LANs ) and transfer data over wide sphere networks ( WANs ). Frame Relay shares some of the same underlying technology as X.25 .
It is based on the older X.25 packet-switching technology that was designed to transmit analogue data as voice conversations. Unlike X.25, which was designed for analogue signals, Frame Relay is a fast packet technology, which means that the protocol does not attempt to decline errors. It is frequently used to connect LANs with main backbones, vitamin a well as in public across-the-board area networks and in private network environments with leased T-1 lines. It requires a consecrated connection during the transmission period and is not ideal for voice or television, which require a constant stream of transmissions .
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Q11. What are the different features of Frame Relay?
Ans. The different features of Frame Relay are :
- Frame Relay is a connectionless service, which means that every data packet that passes over the network contains address information
- Frame Relay is a service that is provided with a variety of speeds from 56 Kbs to 25 Mbs. Although the speeds most used for the service are currently 56 Kbs and 1,544 Mbs
- The frames are of variable length and go up to 4,096 bytes
- Frame Relay is considered a broadband ISDN service
- It operates at high speed (1,544 Mbps to 44,376 Mbps).
- It operates only on the physical and data link layers. Therefore, it can be easily used on the Internet.
- It has a large frame size of 9000 bytes. Therefore, it can accommodate all local area network frame sizes.
- Frame Relay can only detect errors (at the data link layer). But there is no flow control or error control. It operates in the data link layer.
Q12. How does a Frame Relay Work?
Ans. Frame Relay supports the multiplexing of traffic from multiple connections over a divided physical connection. It uses hardware components that include router frames, bridges, and switches to pack data into individual frame of reference relay messages. Each connection uses a 10-bit Data Link Connection Identifier ( DLCI ) for unique channel addressing. There are two types of connections :
- Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) for persistent connections are intended to be maintained for long periods even if data is not actively transferred.
- Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs) for temporary connections that last only one session.
Frame Relay then places the data in a variable-size unit called a frame and leaves any necessity error discipline ( datum retransmission ) until the endpoints, speeding up the overall transmittance of data .
Q13. What is a MAC address?
Ans. A MAC ( Media Access Control ) address is the alone 48-bit hardware address of a LAN circuit board, normally stored in the ROM of the net adapter card .
The MAC address is a alone identifier that manufacturers assign to a network batting order or device. It is besides known as a forcible address represented by hexadecimal digits. Each MAC address is unique global and, in theory, they are fixed for each device .
Each MAC address includes six pairs of numbers. The first gear three pairs help to identify the manufacturer and the adjacent three to the specific model. It is significant to bear in mind that a calculator may have a variety of hardware to connect to networks ; thus, it is coarse to have a MAC address for Ethernet, one for Wi-Fi, and another for Bluetooth .
Q14. What is ‘beaconing’?
Ans. Beaconing is the process that allows a net to self-repair network problems. This is among the important network consultation questions and you must prepare for the relate terminologies as well .
Q15. Differentiate between ‘attenuation’, ‘distortion’, and ‘noise’.
Ans. When a sign travels through a culture medium, it loses some of its energy ascribable to the underground of the medium. This loss of energy is called attenuation .
When a signal travels through a medium from one point to another, it may change the form or form of the signal. This is known as distortion .
make noise is unwanted electrical or electromagnetic energy that degrades the quality of signals and data .
Q16. What is an IP address?
Ans. An Internet Protocol address ( IP address ) is a numeral unique address of a device in a network. IP is a datagram-oriented connectionless protocol, therefore each mailboat must contain a heading with the source IP address, the address IP address, and other data in order to be delivered successfully .
There are two types of IPs –
- Private IP Address – A secret IP address is a laid of numbers that are assigned to each computer or organization, connected to a secret net. An exercise of a individual IP savoir-faire is your mobile telephone or your family router which have a nonpayment local address .
- Public IP Address – Public IP addresses are global addresses, visible to anyone browsing the Internet. A user just needs an internet connection to connect to such devices.
Q17. How to find the IP address of a website?
Ans. Finding the IP address of a web site or a domain is not a catchy tax and involves the under steps –
- Press the “ Start ” button on your computer
- character in the program and file browser “ cdm ”
- Hit “ Enter ”
- The MS-DOS cabinet will open, where you must type “ nslookup google.com ”. rather of “ google.com ”, you must write the domain name of the page you want to consult
- next, you will be able to see the IP address
Q18. What is ‘bandwidth’?
Ans. The limit range of frequencies of signals that a channel can carry is called the bandwidth. Bandwidth is much confused with Internet travel rapidly when it is actually the volume of information that can be sent over a connection in a quantify amount of time, calculated in megabits per second ( Mbps ) .
logically the bandwidth of our network will be critical for its quality and accelerate. The more bandwidth we have, the better, since the firm we can transfer data .
Q19. What are ‘firewalls’?
Ans. A firewall is a network security system, creditworthy to manage network traffic. It uses a dress of security rules to prevent remote control access and contented percolate. Firewalls are used to protect the systems or networks from viruses, worms, malware, etc. Firewalls are normally of two types –
Physical – A physical firewall or hardware firewall is a physical device, sits between the external net and the server. They analyze incoming traffic and filter out any threats to the device. wide used in institutions and bombastic companies .
Logical – A logical or software firewall can exist anywhere on the subnet and protects hosts anywhere on the subnet without rewiring. They alone protect the calculator on which they are installed, and in many cases, they are integrated into the function system itself .
Q20. How does a firewall work?
Ans. This is among the popularly asked network interview questions. The firewall ‘ listens ’ for what information packets are trying to leave or enter the computer system. Blocking can be done based on respective criteria, such as the IP to which they are destined, the type of port used to send them, or the lotion of origin .
One of the most complex aspects of using firewalls lies in their shape, in deciding what types of connections are blocked and which ones are not .
Q21. What are the major types of networks?
Ans. There are two major type of networks : Server-based network and Peer-to-peer network .
Q22. What are the important topologies for networks?
Ans. There are three necessity topologies : Star, Bus, and Ring .
Q23. Differentiate between static IP addressing and dynamic IP addressing.
Ans. In a static IP address, a calculator ( or another device ) is always configured to use the like IP address, whereas, in a moral force IP address, the IP address can change sporadically and is managed by a centralized network service .
Q24. What are the different ways to exchange data?
Ans. Following are the different ways to exchange data :
Q25. What are routers?
Ans. Routers connect two or more network segments. These intelligent network devices store data in their route tables such as paths, hops, and bottlenecks. They determine the most accurate data transfer paths and engage in Open Systems Interconnection ( OSI ) Network Layer .
The roles of a router include :
- Inter-network communication
- Best path selection
- Packet forwarding
- Packet filtering
Q26. What are the criteria for the best path selection of a router?
Ans. The postdate parameters define the path choice :
- Longest prefix match
- Minimum AD (administrative distance)
- Lowest metric value
Q27. Explain what is a source route?
Ans. The source route is defined as a sequence of IP addresses that are used to identify the route of a datagram. You can besides involve the reservoir route in the IP datagram heading .
Q28. What is the difference between ‘standard’ and ‘extended’ ACL (access control list)?
Ans. Standard ACLs are source-based, whereas extended ACLs are source- and destination-based .
Q29. What is data encapsulation?
Ans. Data encapsulation is the march of breaking down information into smaller, manageable chunks before their transmittance across the network .
Q30. What is RAS?
Ans. RAS ( Remote Access Services ) refers to any combination of hardware and software to enable distant access to tools or information that typically reside on a net of IT devices .
Q31. Mention the different network protocols that are supported by Windows RRAS services?
Ans. Following are the three main net protocols supported by Windows RRAS services :
Q32. What are the perquisites to configure a server?
Ans. Perquisites to configure a server are :
- LAN card should be connected
- Root (partition on which window is installed) should be in NTFS format.
- A server should be configured with a static IP address.
Q33. How can you secure a computer network?
Ans. You can achieve a secure calculator network in the play along ways :
- Install a reliable and updated antivirus program across the network
- Ensure firewalls are setup and configured properly
- Monitor firewall performance
- Ensure User authentication
- Update passwords regularly, every quarter
- Create a virtual private network (VPN)
Q34. Mention the uses of the Hamming code?
Ans. Following are some of the park applications of using Hemming code :
- Shielding wire
- Embedded Processor
- Computer Memory
- Open connectors
Q35. What are proxy servers and how do they protect computer networks?
Ans. Proxy servers prevent external users from identifying the IP addresses of an internal net. They make a network about invisible to external users, who can not identify the physical location of a network without cognition of the correct IP address .
Q36. What are Nodes and Links?
Ans. Nodes – Devices or data points on a more across-the-board network are known as nodes. They are individual parts of a larger data social organization and hold data. They besides link other nodes .
Links- A link is the physical and legitimate network component for interconnecting hosts or nodes in a network. It is a physical communication medium such as a coaxial cable or optical character .
Q37. What is SLIP?
Ans. SLIP or serial Line Interface Protocol was developed during the early UNIX days and it is used for outback entree .
skid does not provide error detection as it relies on higher-layer protocols for it. therefore, SLIP alone is not successful on an erring dial-up connection. however, it is still useful to test the operate arrangement ’ s response capabilities under load ( looking at ping flood tide statistics ) .
Interviewers frequently ask such network interview questions and you must prepare for such abbreviations .
Q38. What is TCP/IP?
Ans. TCP/IP is the unretentive form of the Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. It is a adjust of protocol layers designed to facilitate data exchange on heterogenous networks .
Learn all about Cisco Certifications, their Scope, and Benefits, read our blog – what are Cisco Certifications?
Q39. How many layers does TCP/IP Model have?
Ans. TCP/IP Model has four layers :
|Network Interface||Network Interface is besides called a net access level. It defines how data should be sent physically using the network .|
|internet||It enables hosts to insert packets into the network and have them delivered to the destination, on the lapp network, or another distant network .|
|transmit||This layer permits devices on the informant and destination hosts to carry on a conversation. It ensures dependability, flow restraint, and correction of data that is being sent over the network .|
|lotion||It is the topmost layer of the TCP/IP model. It defines TCP/IP lotion protocols and how host programs interface with transport layer services to use the network .|
Q40. Explain the different layers in the OSI model?
Ans. It is one of the most normally asked network interview questions. The OSI ( open Systems Interconnection ) Model consists of seven layers :
|physical||It is the lowest layer of the OSI Model. It transmits bleak unstructured data bits over a communication impart. The Physical layer is creditworthy for the actual forcible connection between the devices. While receiving data, the Physical layer gets the signal received, converts it into 0s and 1s, and sends them to the Data Link layer .|
|Data Link|| At this layer, the immediately connected nodes perform node-to-node data transmit where datum is packaged into frames. This level besides corrects errors that occurred at the Physical layer. Data Link Layer is divided into two sub-layers :
|network||The Network layer is responsible for transmitting data from one host to the other located in different networks. It receives frames from the data link level and delivers them to their intended destinations based on the addresses contained inside the frame of reference. It besides takes care of packet route .|
|ecstasy||The tape drive layer is responsible for managing the rescue and error-checking of data packets. It ensures the throughout rescue of the arrant message .|
|school term||This layer creates communication channels, called sessions, between devices. It opens sessions, ensures they remain capable while data is being transferred, and closes them when communication ends. It is besides responsible for authentication and reconnections .|
|presentation||This layer extracts data from the application layer and manipulates it as per the want format to transmit over the network .|
|application||At the Application layer, both the end-user and the application layer interact directly with the software application. This layer acts as a windowpane for the application services to access the net and for displaying the received information to the drug user .|
Q41. A gateway works in which layer of the OSI model?
Ans. Transport layer .
Q42. Explain why the standard OSI model is known as 802.xx?
Ans. The OSI model was introduced in February 1980. In 802.XX, ‘ 80 ’ is named for the class 1980, and ‘ 2 ’ is named for the calendar month of February .
Q43. What common software problems lead to network defects?
Ans. It can be any or a combination of :
- Application conflicts
- Client-server problems
- Configuration error
- Protocol mismatch
- Security issues
- User policy & rights issues
This question is among the basic network interview questions and you must prepare for such questions .
Q44. Why is encryption on a network necessary?
Ans. Encryption is the process of changing data from its original clear format to an indecipherable format, frankincense ensuring network security system. It requires the user to use a confidential key or password to decrypt the data .
encoding is not alone utilitarian for communications, but besides in any case where you want to protect sensitive information. thus, it is possible to encrypt the information contained in disks, folders or even person files, to prevent unauthorized access. then, in addition to the benefit of protecting the privacy of users, data encoding prevents other types of attacks such as identity larceny, or bank fraud, in addition to providing a protective covering mechanism against the larceny or loss of devices with sensible information .
Q45. What are the types of errors?
Ans. There are two categories of errors –
- Single-bit error – one-bit error per data unit
- Burst error – Two or more bits errors per data unit
Q46. What is a client-server model?
Ans. The client-server mannequin or architecture is a communication framework for network processes. This framework is distributed among service requestors, clients, and service providers and offers them crystalline access to applications, data, computing services or any other resource of the workgroup and/or across the arrangement, on multiple platforms .
- User interface management
- management of shared peripherals
- capture and validation of remark data
- generation of queries and reports on databases
- control of coincident entree to shared databases
- Create communications links with early local or wide area networks
Q47. What is TELNET?
Ans. TELNET is a client-service protocol on the internet or local area network, allowing a drug user to log on to a outside device and have access to it. This is among the most normally asked network consultation questions. technically, it is a bidirectional interactional text-oriented communication adeptness, which uses a virtual terminal connection .
Q48. What is RIP?
Ans. In network, RIP is an abbreviation for Routing Information Protocol. It is a simpleton protocol that exchanges information between the routers .
Q49. What is half-duplex?
Ans. It is the mode of communication between two devices. here the data flows bi-directionally but simultaneously. A perfective model of a half-duplex is a walkie-talkie .
Q50. What is a full-duplex?
Ans. It is a mode of communication between two devices and the datum menstruate is bi-directional excessively, but the flow is coincident. One of the examples of full-duplex is a telephone .
Q51. What is netstat?
Ans. Netstat is a command-line utility plan that provides information about the current Transmission Control Protocol /Internet Protocol ( TCP/IP ) settings of a joining .
Q52. What is a peer-peer process?
Ans. The processes on each machine that convey at a given layer are called the peer-peer summons .
Q53. What is anonymous FTP?
Ans. With the help of an anonymous FTP, users can be granted access to files in populace servers. Users can log in a anonymous guests, frankincense the appoint .
Q54. What is NAT?
Ans. It stands for Network Address Translation and is a protocol that allows a net device, normally a firewall, to assign a public address to a computer/s inside a private network .
Q55. Mention a few examples of private network addresses.
Ans. Few examples of private network addresses are :
10.0.0.0 with a subnet binding of 255.0.0.017220.127.116.11 with subnet cover of 255.240.0.01918.104.22.168 with subnet binding of 255.255.0.0 .
Q56. Can you tell me the main elements of a protocol?
Ans. There are three chief elements of a protocol –
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- Syntax: It refers to the structure or format of the data and their order of presentation.
- Semantics: It specifies the meaning of each section of bits.
- Timing: Timing refers to two characteristics, which include the timing of data sending and the speed of data sending.
such common networking consultation questions are frequently asked by the interviewers .
Q57. What is NIC?
Ans. NIC is the abbreviation for Network Interface Card. It is a peripheral wag with electronic circuitry. It is attached to a personal computer and connects to a network. NIC has its own MAC address and this identifies a personal computer on the network .
Q58. What is the difference between Communication and Transmission?
Ans. Transmission – A process of sending and receiving data between informant and finish, in only one manner. It is regarded as the physical campaign of data .
Communication – A process of sending and receiving data between reference and finish, in both ways .
Q59. Explain NAT in networking.
Ans. Network Address Translation ( NAT ) is a protocol used to convert the IP address of the calculator network into a local anesthetic network to a individual IP address. It takes all your local network devices and provides a single IP address to share a single connection to the internet. NAT is used router, computer, firewall in a local network .
Q60. Explain NOS.
Ans. Short form for Network Operating System. Specialized software that provides connectivity to a calculator such that it can communicate with other computers and devices on a network .
Q61. What is IDEA?
Ans. IDEA is the abbreviation for International Data Encryption Algorithm. It is the surrogate for the Data Encryption Standard ( DES ) .
Q62. What is ASCII?
Ans. american Standard Code for Information Interchange .
Q63. What is Brouter?
Ans. Brouter is a device that functions as both a bridge and a router. It forwards data within the networks and besides routes data to individual systems in a network .
Q64. Mention the maximum length of the Thinnet cable?
Ans. The utmost duration of the Thinnet cable television is 185 meters .
Q65. Name the cable which uses the RJ11 connector?
Ans. Telephone cables use the RJ11 connection .
Q66. How would you differentiate between Firewall and Antivirus?
Ans. Both are security system applications used in network .
A firewall prevents unauthorized entree in individual networks as intranets. however, it does not protect against viruses, spyware, or adware .
An antivirus is a software that protects a calculator from any malicious software, virus, spyware, or adware .
You may consider such network consultation questions to be basic, but such questions are the front-runner of interviewers as interviewees often leave behind such network interview questions while preparing .
Q67. How will you recover data from a Virus-infected system?
Ans. We will install an OS and updated antivirus in a system that is dislodge of any viruses, and then connect the hard driveway of the infect organization as a secondary campaign. The hard campaign will then be scanned and cleaned. Data can now be copied into the system .
Q68. What is ipconfig?
Ans. ‘ ipconfig ’ is an acronym for Internet Protocol Configuration. We use ipconfig on Microsoft Windows to view and configure the network interface. It displays all TCP/IP network summary information available on a network and helps to modify the DHCP protocol and DNS settings .
Q69. What is ifconfig?
Ans. It is an acronym for Interface Configuration and is used on Linux, Mac, and UNIX operating systems. ‘ ifconfig ’ configures and controls the TCP/IP net interface parameters from Command Line Interface while allowing the exploiter to check the IP addresses of these network interfaces .
Q70. What is the semantic gap?
Ans. Semantic gap is a deviation between high-level programming sets in versatile calculator languages and the simple calculate instructions used by microprocessors .
Q71. What is the difference between a Domain and a Workgroup?
Ans. This is one of the significant network interview questions that you must prepare for your interview. The main difference between a Domain and a Workgroup is where do the computer networks belong to. If it is a home network, then computers will be a part of a workgroup, and if it ’ s a workplace network, then the computers will be a depart of a sphere .
Below are some of the major differences between a Domain and a Workgroup :
|The computers in a domain have a centralize database .||The computers in the workgroup have their own local database .|
|Computers can be on a different local net .||All computers must be on the like local anesthetic sphere network .|
|One or more computers are servers for providing access, security system permission to all early computers in a network .||All computers are peers and no calculator has control over another calculator .|
|A domain is used for transferring and sharing sensitive and authoritative data .||It is used for sharing less impregnable data .|
|Domain has centralized authentication servers which set the rule of authentication .||Each calculator has its own authentication rule for every drug user account .|
|If a drug user has an report in a knowledge domain then the exploiter can log in to any computer in a domain .||Each computer has a set of user accounts. If the drug user has an account on that computer then only the exploiter will be able to access the computer .|
|Changes made in one calculator are mechanically made to all other computers in a net .||Computer settings need to change manually for each computer .|
|It is used by boastfully public and business networks .||A workgroup is better suited for fewer computers .|
|Thousands of computers can be connected .||merely 20 computers connected .|
Q72. What Is NVT?
Ans. NVT stands for Network Virtual Terminal and is a representation of a primary terminal. This virtual terminal helps you to start a telnet session .
Q73. What Is BGP?
Ans. BGP or Border Gateway Protocol is a protocol used to transfer data and information between different host gateways or autonomous systems .
Q74. What is Round Trip Time?
Ans. Round Trip Time or RTT is the clock taken to send a message from one end of a network to the other and binding .
Q75. What are 127.0.0.1 and localhost?
Ans. Localhost is the standard hostname given to the machine, and it is represented by the IP savoir-faire 127.0.0.1. therefore, we can say that 127.0.0.1 and localhost are the like matter .
Q76. Which are the most typical functional units of the client/server applications?
Ans. The most typical functional units of the client/server applications are –
- Presentation logic or user interface (e.g., ATMs)
- Business logic (e.g., Account balance inquiry)
- Data (e.g., Bank account records)
Q77. What are the Triggers?
Ans. Triggers are event-driven specify procedures and are managed by database management systems. It is able of performing complex actions and uses procedural languages full choke .
Q78. What is a Gateway?
Ans. A gateway is a hardware device that is connected to two or more networks. It may be a router, firewall, server, or any other alike device, and is capable of regulating traffic in the network .
Q79. Is there a difference between a gateway and a router?
Ans. A gateway sends the data between two dissimilar networks, while a router sends the data between two exchangeable networks .
Q80. What is a Virtual Private Network (VPN)? What are the advantages of using a VPN Connection?
Ans. A VPN or Virtual Private Network is an code connection ( secure tunnel ) built on the internet from a device to a net. It helps in the creation of a protect network between different networks using the internet ( public net ), ensuring that sensitive data is safely transmitted. This makes it difficult for third base parties to gain unauthorized access, track your activities online, or steal data. By using the VPN, a node can connect to the organization ’ mho network remotely .
Some of the advantages of using VPN Connection are :
- Remote Access
- Protected File Sharing
- Enhanced Security
- Improved performance
- Network Scalability
- Prevents Data choke
Q81. Explain the different types of VPN.
Ans. There are two types of VPNs :
- Remote Access Virtual Private Network:
A distant Access VPN securely connects a device ( endpoints like laptops, tablets, or smartphones ) outside the corporate position. It allows a customer to associate with a individual net and access every one of its resources and services remotely. The joining between the private network and the drug user happens securely through the Internet. It is a low-cost solution and is helpful for both business and home users .
- Site-to-Site or Router-to-Router Virtual Private Network :
This VPN is largely used in large organizations with branches in different locations to connect the network of one office to another in different locations. It has two sub-categories :
- Intranet VPN: Intranet VPN allows respective offices of the lapp company to connect using the Site-to-Site VPN type. It is normally used for connecting distant offices in unlike geographic locations using shared infrastructure ( internet connectivity and servers ) with the same approachability policies as a private WAN ( wide area network ) .
- Extranet VPN: Extranet VPN allows companies to use Site-to-site VPN type to connect to the office of another company. It uses shared infrastructure over an intranet, suppliers, customers, partners, etc., and connects them using give connections .
Q82. What is EGP? What are its advantages?
Ans. EGP stands for Exterior Gateway Protocol. It is used to exchange net-reachability information between Internet gateways within the lapp or different autonomous systems. EGP is the protocol of the routers. It is used to identify the adjust of networks that you will be able to reach within or via each independent system .
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Networking Interview Questions For Experienced Candidates
We are now moving on to the final class of networking consultation questions. This section covers interview questions for feel candidates .
Q83. Explain 10Base-T.
Ans. 10Base-T specifies data transplant rate, i, 10Mbps. here the use of the term ‘ Base ’ defines ‘ Baseband ’ and not ‘ Broadband ’. T denotes the type of cable, which is a distorted copulate .
Q84. Name the user support layers.
Ans. There are three types of drug user accompaniment layers –
- Session Layer
- Presentation Layer and
- Application Layer
Q85. What is Piggy Backing?
Ans. It is the march of gaining access to a restricted communications channel by using an already established session by another drug user. This technique is known to improve the efficiency of the bidirectional protocols .
Q86. What is an asynchronous transmission?
Ans. It is a series modality of transmittance. It is the process of data transmission, where every character is a self-contained unit. Each character in asynchronous transmission has its beginning and stop bits, along with an spotty interval between them .
Q87. What do you mean by a synchronous transmission?
Ans. synchronous transmission refers to continuous data streaming in the form of signals, accompanied by regular clock signals. These signals are generated by the external clocking mechanism and ensure that senders and receivers are in synchronism .
Q88. What are the different types of transmission media?
Ans. Transmission media has two broad types –
- Guided media (wired)
- Unguided media (wireless)
Q89. What is Process Sigma?
Ans. Process Sigma measures the frequency of a job that is performed without any error. It is expressed as a number of standard deviations on a normal distribution .
Q90. What is FMEA?
Ans. Failure Mode Effect and Analysis or FMEA is a qualitative and taxonomic tool to identify electric potential failure modes in a system, the reasons, and their effects .
Q91. What is the backbone network?
Ans. It refers to a centralized infrastructure for distributing unlike routes and data to diverse networks. Backbone networks connect LANs and WANs and besides handles the management of bandwidth and multiple channels .
Q92. What is OSPF?
Ans. OSPF is an abbreviation for Open Shortest Path First. It is a routing protocol that uses a link-state route ( LSR ) algorithm to find out the best possible path for data commute .
Q93. What is the range of addresses in the classes of internet addresses?
Ans. Following are the five unlike ranges of addresses in the classes of the internet :
- Class A: 0.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255
- Class B: 22.214.171.124 – 126.96.36.199
- Class C: 192.0.0.0 – 188.8.131.52
- Class D: 184.108.40.206 – 220.127.116.11
- Class E: 240.0.0.0 – 247.255.255.255
Q94. What are Datalink Protocols?
Ans. Datalink protocols are defined as the sets of requirements used to implement the data link layer. There are the adopt categories of Data Link protocols :
- Synchronous Protocols
- Asynchronous Protocols
- Bit Oriented protocols
- Character Oriented Protocols
Q95. What are the functions of a Network Layer?
Ans. The Network Layer or OSI Layer 3 provides services for exchanging person sections of data over the network between identified end devices. To perform this end-to-end transport Layer 3 uses four basic processes :
Q96. Name the access method used in the 1000BaseTX network.
Ans. CSMA/CD access method is used in the 1000BaseTX network .
Q97. Mention the different types of links used to build a computer network.
Ans. Following are the different types of links used to build a calculator network :
- Wireless Links
- Last-Mile Links
- Leased Lines
Q98. Mention the types of wires used for data transmission in UTP cable.
Ans. There are four types of wires used for data transmission in UTP cable, which is wire 1, 2, 3, and 6. Where wires 1 and 2 are used to transmit the data while wires 3 and 6 are used to receive the data .
Q99. Can we use RG59 and RG6 cables in a computer network?
Ans. RG59 and RG6 cables are not used in the computer net. These cables are made for the cable television receiver network .
Q100. What is 10Base2?
Ans. 10Base2 is defined as separate of the IEEE 802.3a standard, specifies data infection speeds of 10Mbps and a entire segment duration of 185 meters using RG-58 coaxial cable. The 10Base2 criterion specifies a physical bus topology and uses BNC connectors with 50-ohm terminators at each end of the cable. One of the physical ends of each segment must be grounded .
Q101. Name the cable used in the 10BaseFL network.
Ans. Fibre ocular cable is the cable television used in the 10BaseFL net .
Q102. Why is IP protocol deliberated as a connectionless protocol?
Ans. An IP protocol is deliberated as a connectionless protocol because it does not build up a connection before sending data to the end point .
Q103. How many network segments can be populated in 10Base2?
Ans. 10Base2 networks allow a maximum of five segments with only three of those segments populated. Each of the three populated segments can have a maximum of 30 nodes attached .
Q104. What is the point-to-point protocol?
Ans. A communications protocol is used to connect computers to remote network services, including Internet service providers .
Q105. What is NIC?
Ans. The NIC stands for the network interface restrainer. NIC is a device or module that controls and configures the interface of a processor system to a network or other interconnection. There are many different types of interfaces in electronic systems. NICs broadly configure, maintain the current department of state, handle faults, and provide algorithm implementation to successfully transfer data to and from the interface .
Q106. Mention any five applications that use TCP port.
Ans. Following are the five application that uses TCP port :
Q107. What is the 5-4-3 rule? In which architectures do we use the 5-4-3 rule?
Ans. In the 5-4-3 rule, there is a utmost of five segments in a net that are connected with four repeaters. It is used in 10Base2 and 10Base5 Ethernet architectures. In this rule, entirely three segments can be populated with nodes .
Q108. Name the measurement unit used to measure the transmission speed of Ethernet?
Ans. Mbps is the measurement whole used to measure the transmission focal ratio of Ethernet .
Q109. Name the switching method used to explore the destination Mac address.
Ans. The switching method that is used to explore the destination Mac address is Cut Through .
Q110. Mention the use of DDR on Cisco routers.
Ans. DDR stands for dial-on-demand rout used to generate and close a circuit-switched seance. It provides on-demand routing to the depleted volume and periodic dealings .
Q111. Mention the number of access lists required per interface.
Ans. One access list can be used per interface and per protocol .
Q112. What is the possible way to convert the user data from DTE to the WAN Service Form?
Ans. To convert the user data from DTE to WAN Service Form, we can use the Modem, CSU/DSU, and TA/NT1 .
Q113. Name the types of WAN services obtained by Cisco routers.
Ans. WAN services obtained by Cisco routers are switched services where protocols are used to connect end to end devices and Interface front man end .
Q114. Name the various technologies involved in building WAN links?
Ans. versatile technologies involved in building WAN links are :
- Digital connections – using digital-grade telephone lines
- Analog connections – using conventional telephone lines
- Switched connections – using different sets of links between the sender and receiver to move data.
Q115. Explain the Sliding Window in Agile?
Ans. In the Sliding Window, the sender and receiver must deal with the accomplishable sequence numbers. This abstract concept defines the compass of sequence numbers with the concern of transmitter and telephone receiver .
Q116. What standard color sequences are used for a straight-through cable?
Ans. Standard semblance sequences used for a straight-through cable are Orange/white, orange, green/white, green, blue/white, amobarbital sodium, brown/white, brown .
Q117. What is a Network Interface Card?
Ans. Network Interface Card is a associate device used to interlink computers with the network. These cards are of two types : Internal network cards and External network cards .
Q118. What is SMTP?
Ans. bare Mail Transfer Protocol ( SMTP ) is a protocol used to move all home mail across unlike networks. It works with Mail Transfer Agent ( MTA ) and provides the mail transmission on the TCP/IP protocol stack .
Q119. Explain the role of the IEEE in computer networking?
Ans. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ( IEEE ) is an organization comprised of engineers that manage standards for electrical and electronic devices. It involves network devices, cablings, network interfaces, and connectors .
Q120. What are the advantages of PAN?
Ans. PAN has a number of advantages including :
1. pan does not require any extra distance as it does not need any cables and wires.
2. It is used in television receiver and AC rooms, offices, conferences and meetings.
3. It provides multiple device connectivity at the lapp time.
4. It has an low-cost price .
Q121. What are the disadvantages of PAN?
Ans. PAN has the be disadvantages :
1. It can only be operated in lesser range areas.
2. It is used for personal areas.
3. It has a slow rate of transfer.
4. It besides causes noise with radio signals .
Q122. Which are the examples of WPAN?
Ans. Wireless keyboards, smartphones, television receiver remotes, radio printers, BlueTooth, firewire, ZigBee, Wireless USB, Wibree are some of the examples of WPAN .
Q123. Name the layers of the TCP IP protocol suite that are involved in a link-layer switch.
Ans. In TCP IP protocol, a link-layer switch is involved with the data-link layer and physical layer .
Q124. What is MAU?
Ans. Multistation Access Unit ( MAU ) is a device used to connect multiple network stations in star topology in the shape of a ring which is besides known as a token gang network .
Q125. Mention the maximum number of networks and hosts used in classes A, B, and C networks.
Ans. The maximal issue of networks and hosts used in class A, B, and C networks are :
- Class A: 126 networks, 16,777,214 hosts.
- Class B: 16,384 networks, 65,534 hosts.
- Class C: 2,097,152 networks, 254 hosts.
Q126. Differentiate between a ‘bit rate’ and ‘baud rate’.
Ans. A bit rate is the issue of bits transmitted during one second, whereas, baud pace refers to the act of signal units per moment that are required to represent those bits .
Baud rate = moment rate / N, where N is the no. of bits represented by each bespeak switch .
Q127. What is Project 802?
Ans. It is a stick out started by IEEE to set standards to enable intercommunication between equipment from a kind of manufacturers .
Q128. What is ICMP?
Ans. ICMP ( Internet Control Message Protocol ) is a network level protocol of the TCP/IP suite used by hosts and gateways to send telling of datagram problems back to the transmitter .
Q129. What are the differences between TCP and UDP?
Ans. This is one of the significant network consultation questions. The differences between TCP and UDP are :
|TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)||UDP (User Datagram Protocol)|
|Connection-oriented protocol .||Datagram-oriented protocol. It is a connectionless protocol .|
|TCP is more dependable as it guarantees the pitch of data to the finish router .||UDP is less reliable as the delivery of data to the address can not be guaranteed|
|TCP offers extensive error-checking mechanisms .||UDP provides only the basic error-checking mechanism .|
|Slower transmission .||Faster transmission .|
|Heavyweight .||Lightweight .|
|Packets ordain can be preserved or can be rearranged .||Packets ordering is not fixed as all packets are autonomous of each other .|
|Does not support Broadcasting .||Supports Broadcasting|
|The header size is 20 bytes .||The header size is 8 bytes .|
|TCP is used by HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, and SMTP .||UDP is used by protocols like DNS, RIP, SNMP, RTP, TFTP, and NIP .|
Q130. Explain the DHCP Protocol.
Ans. DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. It is a standardized net protocol used on Internet Protocol ( IP ) networks. It is used to auto-configure devices on IP networks enabling them to use the TCP and UDP-based protocols. The DHCP servers automatically assign IP addresses to the network devices which reduces the errors caused by the manual allotment of IP addresses. DHCP is normally used in networks ranging in size from humble home networks to campus networks .
We hope these networking interview questions will help you to crack your following hardware and network interview .
All the best !
Top Networking Career FAQs
1. What is a network?
Ans. A network consists of two or more separate devices linked together such that they can communicate. Networking facilitates data communication between computers and peripherals, and it is done through pumped-up cable or radio receiver links. Networks can be classified according to different criteria such as telescope, type of connection, functional relationship, regional anatomy, or function, among others .
2. What does a network engineer do?
Ans. Network engineers provide technical aid in the initiation, use, alimony, update, and haunt of hardware and software. They ensure the operability and choice of services to facilitate the function of computer systems, based on requirements ; applying techniques, assertive procedures, and following good technical foul practices. They specialize in areas such as communications, control systems, robotics, microprocessors, or semiconductor devices. They must take into score efficiency, condom, and environmental factors .
3. What are skills that I must have to become a network engineer?
Ans. Skills that you must have to become a net engineer will include :
- Specialized technical knowledge on electronic equipment and systems
- Updated on new technical advances
- Ability to convert system requirements into detailed designs, accuracy, and attention to detail
- Ability to work within tight budgets, and deadlines
- Skills to work as part of multidisciplinary teams
- Ability to stay consistently innovative
- Good communication skills, particularly when explaining technical information to people with non-technical backgrounds.
4. What is the average salary of a network engineer in India?
Ans. The average wage dance band of a network mastermind in India is around Rs. 3.2 LPA ( according to Ambitionbox ) .
5. What are the major job responsibilities of a network engineer?
Ans. The major job responsibilities of a network engineer include :
- Configure and install various network devices and services (for example – routers, switches, firewalls, load balancers, VPN, or QoS)
- Perform network maintenance and system updates, including “service packs”, patches, “hotfixes” and security settings
- Monitor performance and ensure system reliability and availability
- Monitor resource usage, trends, and system capacity planning
- Provide technical support and troubleshoot
- Work with established settings and modify management policies to ensure awareness, approval, and success of changes made to the network infrastructure
- Select and implement security tools, policies, and procedures in coordination with the company’s security team
- Collaborate with vendors and other IT employees for troubleshooting
6. What are the eligibility criteria to become a networking engineer?
Ans. To become a network engineer, you need to have :
- Bachelor’s degree in computer science or a related subject
- CCNP or higher certification (CCIE and CISSP certifications will also be highly valued)
- Deep knowledge of network protocols (for example, IPSEC, HSRP, BGP, OSPF, 802.11, and QoS)
- Solid knowledge of the OSI and TCP / IP model
- Hands-on experience in monitoring, network diagnostics, and network analytics tools
7. Which job profiles are available for network engineers?
Ans. Some of the popular network professional roles are – net architect/computer network architect, network digest, help desk support, support/security/systems engineer, IT support mastermind, systems subscribe engineer, network administrator, first/second-line support, VoIP engineer, etc .
8. Which are the top industries hiring network engineers?
Ans. Some of the most popular network engineer recruiters are – Web design, Robotics, Multimedia, Informatic security, Software, construction, Technological infrastructure, Communication Technology management, Telecommunication, etc .
9. Which are the best networking courses available online?
Ans. Some of the free network courses are :
10. How long does it take to complete a networking course?
Ans. A network naturally normally takes 3 months -1 class. however, Naukri Learning offers you ample time to complete your course within the validity and earn a authentication .
11. Is networking a good career?
Ans. A career in networking would always be in demand across unlike industries. market experts speculate a increase of 5 -10 % in networking jobs by 2030. This won ’ metric ton good be rewarding but you would besides get to work with a total of up-to-date technologies.
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