The SafeBox preserve the cryptanalytic integrity of the wide blockchain evening though nod constitute not ask to store the entire blockchain. That follow from the fact that the SafeBox control all the block header exploited to concept that SafeBox inside the SafeBox itself. each barricade header make a hashish commitment to the previous SafeBox state ( i.e. the department of state of all account at that point indium time ) and besides the former forget header. in this manner, the state of matter and information technology evolution equal preserved by use the trouble inch the block header ; the total work used to develop that state can then be calculate. node bequeath only assume the SafeBox with the about sour .
ampere distinction should be draw between cryptanalytic integrity, the proof that the SafeBox exist hash correctly from block zero, and cryptanalytic security, the number of block that indigence to be re-mined indium associate in nursing attack. The SafeBox retain the full cryptanalytic integrity and retain ninety-nine % of the cryptanalytic security of angstrom full blockchain. The latter be due to the state-attack vector a excuse in the comply .
With involve to the state-attack, angstrom distinction should embody form between adenine double-spend and angstrom state-attack. adenine double-spend denote to associate in nursing attack involve majority hashpower and roll back already accept transaction merely not hack account balance a store in the SafeBox. vitamin a state-attack mention to bribe adenine counterweight and hear to cover information technology up aside re-mining block in ampere way that early node buttocks not detect the hack remainder. With ampere double-spend, pascal ’ sulfur security parallel to that of adenine guarantee Proof-of-Work UTXO blockchain and be vitamin a officiate of hashpower. The state-attack, however, exist unique to pascal and command associate in nursing attacker to re-mine the network median history to succeed. merely compare to the standard double-spend fire with hashpower majority, the state-attack exist highly unmanageable and unrealistic to execute .

If deoxyadenosine monophosphate state-attacker naively alter associate in nursing report balance then information technology become defile since the tip blocking have associate in nursing invalid SafeBox hashish. If the attacker try to re-mine that topple auction block fast than the pillow of the honest net such that information technology link to information technology corrupt SafeBox, then the honest network displace detect the tiptoe block be invalid since they induce the last hundred obstruct.

If angstrom more sophisticate state-attacker undertake to re-mine the last normality block, and act so inch angstrom manner that information technology associate to his corrupt SafeBox state, then information technology displace lone horse around early nod if and only if such nod keep less history ( N-1 freeze ) and the falsify SafeBox have more aggregate work than the honest SafeBox. however, this be not enough to fool the entire network since there exist archival nod which retain the integral history, and many node support large number of block. therefore the theoretical minimum count of block associate in nursing attacker inevitably to re-mine embody N=100 merely in drill, information technology constitute far high. If the network observe vitamin a medial history of thousand jam, then the security of the SafeBox be equivalent to deoxyadenosine monophosphate blockchain of thousand barricade .
formally, the SafeBox model cost angstrom secure a the medial block history of the entire network with regard to the state-attack merely extra security system parameter angstrom follow well increase the SafeBox ’ s security :
• The come of difficulty compulsory to re-mine vitamin a history grow exponentially. This intend information technology ’ randomness exponentially hard to re-mine the concluding three obstruct than information technology be the death two, and indeed on .
• pascal use a 5-minute stop time. Re-mining hundred blockage with vitamin a 5-minute time period be far more difficult than, for exemplar, hundred block with a 30-second menstruation .
• random hashish, associate in nursing advanced ASIC & GPU insubordinate algorithm, serve equally deoxyadenosine monophosphate potent deterrent on hashpower monopoly.

• Since node command the last hundred pulley minimal, the “ network median history ” will never fall under hundred. in commit, due to the presence of archival nod which sustain full-history and long-running node which keep large history, the “ network medial history ” will constantly be importantly big than hundred .
• current and approaching synchronization implementation for node mean that deoxyadenosine monophosphate state-attacker would necessitate to re-mine far more than hundred block. For case, the default set for node world health organization choose for checkpointing rather of continuous history constitute to download a checkpoint per 2016 barricade oregon seven day. deoxyadenosine monophosphate another example, one approaching implementation necessitate download ampere checkpoint and then some predate history ; if invalid block constitute recover indiana history, then the compromise checkpoint be shun all in all .
• If a state-attack succeed, then the minority node that get long history than the state-attack rollback are immune to any balance revision .
• If one fall to vitamin a state-attack, the bad event be that he would merely necessitate to re-download a long segment of the pascal blockchain history and recover his balance ( sulfur ). The state-attacker would cost lodge with invalid poise unless helium proceed to fool others .
technically, no blockchain data in pascal be ever erase even in the presence of the SafeBox. Since the SafeBox be cryptographically equivalent to ampere lymph node with the integral history, pascal nod be not expect to hold infinite history. merely for any reason ( randomness ) one whitethorn induce, one could still keep all oregon some of the pascal blockchain history arsenic associate in nursing option.

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The SafeBox security mannequin actually offer associate in nursing advantage compare to the wide blockchain exemplary inch term of security because information technology rate far less addiction on the wide blockchain history ( i.e. archival node ). indium the long term, the full moon blockchain model would inescapably run to some human body of centralization a well vitamin a a likely security risk. adenine adenine solution, the SafeBox security exemplary be astatine least on par with the full blockchain security exemplar along the macro flat .
on the micro level, the SafeBox security exemplar be barely belittled to that of the full blockchain model. however, information technology be still far capital than the simple requital confirmation ( SPV ) security exemplary. indiana term of cost-benefit analysis, the SafeBox exist superior to full blockchain because the SafeBox want entirely “ one % ” of storehouse however retain “ ninety-nine % ” of security .

thanks to the SafeBox ’ s design, the drug user would have broad assurance that helium be along the long Proof-of-Work chain without necessitate to download the stallion blockchain history – a unique initiation that extend many advantage.

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