3. coins of the independence period ( from 1946 ) Coin of the Syrian Kingdom – The Gold Dinar (1920)Fig. 1: Gold Dinar of the Kingdom of Syria, 21 mm, 1920 | Esam Aljaber Abou-Fakher (CC-BY-NC-SA) The kuwaiti dinar of the syrian kingdom was a amber coin that did not come into circulation and only existed in a few specimens as trial coins. The coat of arms of the kingdom with a seven-pointed star and crown was minted on its obverse ( fig. 1 ). The leading symbolizes the seven verses of the Qur ’ anic opening surah, the pate a royal emblem. however, the crown is unusual in muslim culture ; it is more likely to be associated with christian european culture, which makes this combination noteworthy. The change by reversal of the iraqi dinar shows the name of King Faisal I as “ tughra ” ( calligraphic combination of name and title of the Sultan ), therefore recalling the Ottoman neologism custom. This design of the jordanian dinar shows the political influences of the time, which was characterized by declining Ottoman and increasing westerly think .Fig. 2: ½ piastre, 21 mm, 1921 (French Mandate) | Esam Aljaber Abou-Fakher (CC-BY-NC-SA) Coins of the French mandate (1920-1946) With the french occupation of Syria in 1920, syrian coins were largely subjected to the ocular culture of France and carried the french terminology aboard Arabic. Their ocular language was chiefly based on plant motifs such as oaks, olives, ears of corn, etc. These were insignificant in Islamic coins, whereas they are very present in french culture and coin purpose ( Fig. 2 ). therefore, syrian coins served primarily as a mean of representation of the french mandate power. It was not until 1929 that coins were issued that tended to appeal to syrian culture through abstract cosmetic motifs ( Fig. 3 ). The ‘ local ’ government, which was in principle the mediator between the population and the mandate office, was probably involved in the design. In any case, the mandate coins – both through the plant motifs and the abstract ornaments – initiated a modernization in domestic coin design, which had previously been characterized more by Islamic-calligraphic motifs. By largely dispensing with depictions of people and animals, these coins were in harmony with traditional muslim polish and its “ ban on images ” .Fig. 3: 10 piastres (silver), 17 mm, 1929 (French Mandate) | Esam Aljaber Abou-Fakher (CC-BY-NC-SA) Coins of the independence period (from 1946) After independence in 1946, Syria wanted to present itself on the international degree as a sovereign and exposed country through a new ocular language. even before the beginning publish of coins – and as an gain over the abstract features of Islamic art – the eagle double was developed as the national emblem, based on the alleged eagle sag ( Arab. : al-Uqab ) of the Prophet Muhammad. therefore, this motif found its way directly – from the first offspring of coins in 1947 until nowadays – as a permanent wave theme on the front of the coins. As for the invert side, Syria initially used motifs with ball-shaped symbolic capacity, such as the sun for the ‘ modern good morning ’, which clearly stood for the raw country. The grain of wheat reappeared, but now in response to its internationally far-flung presence as a vital food and symbol of birthrate ( Fig. 4 ). In summation, the abstract Islamic ornamental radiation pattern of an arabesque appeared, which has been frequently varied since then. This arabesque points to its roots in Islamic culture, which was meant to make it an apparent sign of the authenticity and continuity of the new state. For about half a century ( 1947-1995 ) it was the main motif on the invert of syrian coins. The combination eagle/arabesque characterized this time period .Fig. 4: 50 piastres (silver), 24 mm, 1947 | Esam Aljaber Abou-Fakher (CC-BY-NC-SA) In 1958 Syria was united with Egypt under socialistic auspices. As a resultant role, theme of socialist symbolism were placed on syrian coins. Thus the granulate of wheat was connected with the gear rim. This combination stands for diligence and agribusiness, two coarse themes of socialist iconography ( Fig. 5 ). however, political union failed within a short time and the coin design returned to the tradition of eagle/arabesque, which reached its flower with the topic of the coin in 1968, when newly coins were added and the arabesque became more expansive ( Fig. 6 ) .Fig. 5: 25 piastres (silver), 20 mm, 1958 (union with Egypt) | Esam Aljaber Abou-Fakher (CC-BY-NC-SA)Fig. 6:1 pound, 27 mm, 1968 – restrike 1971 | Esam Aljaber Abou-Fakher (CC-BY-NC-SA) After independence, commemorative coins were besides issued, the design of which showed current occasions on the invert side – for case the coins for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ( FAO ), which dealt with the increase in food output through the construction of the Euphrates decameter ( Fig. 7 ). Above all, however, the commemorative coins celebrated the rule socialistic Baath Party and President Hafiz al-Assad as the central name, frankincense intensifying the political propaganda on the coins. In accession to the above-mentioned socialistic symbolism, which was broadly continued, the party flag and the portrait of al-Assad are the most outstanding motifs ( Figs. 8 and 9 ).
Fig. 7: 50 piastres (F.A.O. coin: increasing of world food production), 23,5 mm, 1976 | Esam Aljaber Abou-Fakher (CC-BY-NC-SA)Fig. 8: 25 piastres (Commemorative coins: 25th anniversary of al-Baath Party), 20,3 mm, 1972 | Esam Aljaber Abou-Fakher (CC-BY-NC-SA) In the 1990s, the collapse of the Soviet Union led to a weakening of socialist state opinion. At the same time, tourism developed increasingly as an economic sector. subsequently, the country ’ s diachronic cultural inheritance gained in importance. In 1996, historical buildings such as the bastion of Aleppo were depicted on the coins and the arabesque was displaced ( Fig. 10 ). These coins are still in circulation today .Fig. 9: 25 pounds (Commemorative coins: twenty-fifth anniversary of Corrective Movement), 25 mm, 1995 | Esam Aljaber Abou-Fakher (CC-BY-NC-SA)Fig. 10: 5 pounds, 24,5 mm, 1996 | Esam Aljaber Abou-Fakher (CC-BY-NC-SA) even before 2011, the 25-pound coin had been commissioned for minting from the austrian Mint in three unlike designs – as commemorative coins. It was to introduce a variety in coin purpose with fresh motifs and themes ( including “ Damascus, capital of arab culture 2008 ” ). ascribable to the european sanctions against Syria, however, the order was stopped and the coins were not yet put into circulation .Fig. 11: 50 pounds, 25 mm, 2018 (wartime) | Esam Aljaber Abou-Fakher (CC-BY-NC-SA) The latest syrian mint with a prize of 50 pounds was minted during the war and has been in circulation since 2018. In summation to the coat of arms on the obverse, it features the memorial to the Unknown Soldier in Damascus on the rearward and is therefore closely related to the current war ( Fig. 11 ). Aljaber Abou-Fakher, Esam : Die syrischen Münzen von 1918 bismuth 2010. Ein Blick auf die politische Ikonografie und Repräsentation des Staates. Norderstedt : BoD, 2017 ( Diss. ) عطار، عبد الرحمن : قصة النقود والمصارف في سورية 1880–1980. دمشق، 1988. Djaroueh, Adnan : syrian Money. early twentieth Century to the show Day. Beirut : Dar Al Mourad Publishers, 2013. Dokumente des Archivs von „Monnaie de Paris “ über die syrischen Mandatsmünzen ( aufbewahrt in „CAEF – Centre des archives économiques et financières “, Savigny-le-Temple ). Dokumente five hundred Münze Österreich AG, Wien ( eigene Korrespondenzen massachusetts institute of technology five hundred Münzstätte ). feature of speech image : Esam Aljaber Abou-Fakher ( CC-BY-NC-SA ) The background to this article is the published dissertation of the author (in German). You can read more about him by clicking Portrait, and Dissertation
Esam Aljaber Abou-Fakher is a ocular artist working on numismatics and political iconography. He studied art at the University of Damascus ( Syria ) and received his ph from the University of Oldenburg ( Germany ) in 2016 with the dissertation “ The syrian coins from 1918 to 2010. A expression at the political iconography and representation of the submit ”. In 2005, he brought out the poetry solicitation “ Foreignness of Marble ” ( in Arabic ) .