independently owned & operated organizations that acquire tiêu đề ownership of the goods that they handle. There are two types of merchant wholesalers : full-service & limited-service .
Limited-service wholesalers, who offer fewer services lớn their customers & suppliers, emerged in order Khủng reduce the costs of service. There are several types of limited-service wholesalers. Cash-and-carry wholesalers usually handle a limited line of fast-moving merchandise, selling bự smaller retailers on a cash-only basis và not delivering goods. Truck wholesalers or jobbers sell & deliver directly from their vehicles, often for cash. They carry a limited line of semiperishables such as milk, bread, và snack foods. Drop shippers vì not carry inventory or handle the merchandise. Operating primarily in bulk industries such as lumber, coal, & heavy equipment, they take orders but have manufacturers ship merchandise directly lớn final consumers. Rack jobbers, who handle nonfood lines such as housewares or personal goods, primarily serve drug & grocery retailers. Rack jobbers typically perform such functions as delivery, shelving, inventory stacking, và financing. Producers ’ cooperatives — owned by their members, who are farmers — assemble farm produce lớn be sold in local markets & chia sẻ profits at the over of the year .
In less-developed countries, wholesalers are often the sole or primary means of trade ; they are the main elements in the distribution systems of many countries in Latin America, East Asia, & Africa. In such countries the business activities of wholesalers may expand béo include manufacturing & retailing, or they may branch out into nondistributive ventures such as real estate, finance, or transportation. Until the late 1950 s, Nhật Bản was dominated by wholesaling. Even relatively large manufacturers và retailers relied principally on wholesalers as their intermediaries. However, in the late đôi mươi th century, Japanese wholesalers declined in importance. Even in the most highly industrialized countries, however, wholesalers remain essential phệ the operations of significant numbers of small retailers .